Bridging social forestry and forest management units: Juxtaposing policy imaginaries with implementation practices in a case from Sulawesi

Tajuddin Tajuddin, Supratman Supratman, Darmawan Salman, Yusran Yusran


As the priority forestry development programs in Indonesia in recent years, Social Forestry policies (SF) and Forest Management Units (FMU or KPH) still indicate low performance. The SF program in particular, is dependent on the role of the KPH as an institution in realizing its expected goals. Using the theory of bureaucratic politics, this article presents the implementation of the SF program under the KPH system and how both programs can mutually support or inhibit the development of the other. The research was conducted using policy content analysis in the implementation of SF and KPH programs by applying interview methods, questionnaires and field observations that are presented both qualitatively and descriptively. We find that the development of SF cannot be separated from the role of the KPH bureaucracy due to the absence of bureaucratic institutions at the site level. SF sites are located in KPH working areas and perform a central role in all aspects of SF management. However, SF programs are not clearly stated as one of the main tasks and functions of KPHs and the existence of KPH interests in realizing independence without special budget allocations for the development of SF are obstacles to its implementation. KPH also still face regulatory issues that have not fully supported KPH operations resulting in weak institutions and independence to governing hierarchies due to the strong influence of the bureaucracy at the central and provincial levels. On the other hand, the SF program is still perceived as a rival of KPHs in forest management areas and further suffer from rigid regulations that are difficult to apply, making it challenging for SF to support the objectives of KPH programming. Under these conditions, KPH tend to limit SF schemes, thus privileging specific different forestry partnership schemes that are anticipated to support the independence of the KPH.


Forest Management Units (FMU); Social Forestry; bureaucratic politics

Full Text:



Agbogidi, O. M., Ofuoku, A. U., & Dolor, D. E. (2007). Role of community Forestry in sustainable forest Management and Development: a Review. ASSET : An International Journal (Series A)}, 7(1), 44–54. Retrieved from

Baynes, J., Herbohn, J., & Dressler, W. (2016). Power relationships: Their effect on the governance of community forestry in the Philippines. Land Use Policy, 54, 169–176. doi:

Cooter, R. D. (1994). Structural adjudication and the new law merchant: A model of decentralized law. International Review of Law and Economics, 14(2), 215–231. doi:

Cronkleton, P., Larson, A. M., Feintrenie, L., Garcia, C., & Levang, P. (2013). Reframing Community Forestry to Manage the Forest-Farm Interface. Small-Scale Forestry, 12(1), 5–13. doi:

Das, C. R. (2015). Social Forestry in Odisha : An Extraordinary International Aided Initiative Towards Revival and Restoration of Forests . International Journal of Research and Development - A Management Review (IJRDMR), 4(2), 28–49.

Diefenbach, T., & Sillince, J. A. A. (2015). Formal and Informal Hierarchy in Different Types of Organization. Organization Studies, 32(11), 1515–1537. doi:

Djaenudin, D. (2014). Kelayakan Ekonomi Usaha Jasa Lingkungan di KPHL Pohuwatu, Provinsi Gorontalo pp 101–124. In : Ekawati, S., Hernowo, B. (Eds). Operasionalisasi Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan (KPH): Langkah Awal Menuju Kemandirian. Sleman: PT. Kanisius.

Dupuits, E. (2014). Transnational self-help networks and community forestry: A theoretical framework. Forest Policy and Economics, 58, 5–11. doi:

Edmunds, D., Wollenberg, E., Contreras, A. P., Dachang, L., Kelkar, G., Nathan, D., … Singh, N. M. (2003). Local Forest Management : The Impacts of Devolution Policies. (D. Edmunds & E. Wollenberg, Eds.). Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).

Ekawati, S. (2014a). Apakah yang dimaksud dengan Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan (KPH)? pp 1–20. In Ekawati, S., Hernowo, B. (Eds). Operasionalisasi Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan (KPH): Langkah Awal Menuju Kemandirian. Sleman: PT. Kanisius.

Ekawati, S. (2014b). Terobosan Penting Melembagakan KPH Dalam Pengelolaan Hutan di Indonesia pp 39–68. In : Ekawati, S., Hernowo, B. (Eds). Operasionalisasi Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan (KPH): Langkah Awal Menuju Kemandirian. Sleman: PT. Kanisius.

Falconer, J. (1987). Forestry Extension: a Review of The Key Issues. Social Forestry Network, 1–34.

Fisher, L. A., Kim, Y.-S., Latifah, S., & Mukarom, M. (2017). Managing Forest Conflicts: Perspectives of Indonesia’s Forest Management Unit Directors. Forest and Society, 1(1). doi:

Fisher, R. J. (1999). Devolution and decentralization of forest management in Asia and the Pacific. Unasylva, 50(4): 3–5.

Gautam, K. H. (1999). Approach to extension in Forestry : experience of community forestry in Nepal. Banko Janakari, 9(1), 29–32.

Gelo, D., & Koch, S. F. (2012). Does one size fit all? Heterogeneity in the valuation of community forestry programs. Ecological Economics, 74, 85–94. doi:

Giessen, L., Krott, M., & Möllmann, T. (2014). Forest Policy and Economics Increasing representation of states by utilitarian as compared to environmental bureaucracies in international forest and forest – environmental policy negotiations. Forest Policy and Economics, 38, 97–104. doi:

Gilmour, D. (2016). Forty years of community-based forestry: A review of its extent and effectiveness. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organizations of the United Nations.

Hajjar, R., McGrath, D. G., Kozak, R. A., & Innes, J. L. (2013). Framing community forestry challenges with a broader lens: Case studies from the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Environmental Management, 92(9), 2159–2169. doi:

Hakim, I. (2010). Orientasi Makro Kebijakan Social Forestry di Indonesia pp 1-32 dalam : S. Anwar dan I. Hakim (Ed.). Menuju Restorasi Pembangunan Kehutanan Berkelanjutan.

Hardjana, A. K. (2010). Desentralisasi kehutanan dalam terwujudnya pembentukan KPH. Info Teknis Dipterokarpa, 4(1).

Herawati, T., Liswanti, N., & Banjade, M. R. (2017). Merancang Masa Depan Perhutanan Sosial di Provinsi Lampung : Dari skenario menuju aksi. Brief Cifor, (183), 1–8. doi:

Hjern, B., & Hull, C. (1982). Implementation Research as Empirical Constitutionalism. European Journal of Political Research, 10(2), 105–115. doi:

Hubo, C., & Krott, M. (2010). Politiksektoren als Determinanten von Umweltkonflikten am Beispiel invasiver gebietsfremder Arten. Umwelt- Und Technikkonflikte, 219–238. doi:

Jusuf, Y., & Fahrul, F. (2011). Analisis performasi kelembagaan kehutanan pada masa otonomi daerah (otoda) di Kabupaten Gowa, Takalar dan Jeneponto. Jurnal Hutan dan Masyarakat, 6(1), 31–42.

Kartodihardjo, H. (2006). Masalah Kapasitas Kelembagaan dan Arah Kebijakan Kehutanan: Studi Tiga Kasus. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 12(3), 14–25.

Kartodihardjo, H., Nugroho, B., & Putro, H. R. (2011). Pembangunan Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan (KPH) - Konsep, Peraturan Perundangan dan Implementasi. Direktorat Wilayah Pengelolaan dan Penyiapan Areal Pemanfaatan Kawasan Hutan, Direktur Jenderal Planologi Kehutanan.

Kartodihardjo, H., Nugroho, B., & Suharjito, D. (2013). Development of Small Holder Plantation Forests: An Analysis from Policy Process Perspective. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika (Journal of Tropical Forest Management), 19(2), 111–118. doi:

Kartodiharjo, H., & Suwarno, E. (2014). Pengarusutamaan Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan ( KPH ) dalam Kebijakan dan Pelaksanaan Perizinan Kehutanan Pengarusutamaan Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan ( KPH ) Kebijakan dan Pelaksanaan Perizinan Kehutanan. Jakarta (ID): Direktorat Wilayah Pengelolaan dan Penyiapan Areal Pemanfaatan Kawasan Hutan Direktorat Jenderal Planologi Kehutanan.

Krott, M. (2005). Forest Policy Analysis (translated by Renée von Paschen). Springer Publications.

Maryudi, A., Citraningtyas, E. R., Purwanto, R. H., Sadono, R., Suryanto, P., Riyanto, S., & Siswoko, B. D. (2015). The emerging power of peasant farmers in the tenurial conflicts over the uses of state forestland in Central Java, Indonesia. Forest Policy and Economics, 67(OCTOBER), 70–75. doi:

Maryudi, A., Devkota, R. R., Schusser, C., Yufanyi, C., Salla, M., Aurenhammer, H., … Krott, M. (2012). Back to basics: Considerations in evaluating the outcomes of community forestry. Forest Policy and Economics, 14(1), 1–5. doi:

Moktan, M. R., Norbu, L., & Choden, K. (2016). Can community forestry contribute to household income and sustainable forestry practices in rural area? A case study from Tshapey and Zariphensum in Bhutan. Forest Policy and Economics, 62, 149–157. doi:

Muhajir, M., Arizona, Y., Firdaus, A. Y., & Safitri, M. A. (2011). Arah Reformasi Kebijakan Penguasaan Kawasan Hutan di Indonesia. Kertas Kerja Epistema No.02/2011, Jakarta: Epistema Institute.

Ostrom, E. (2005). Understanding Institutional Diversity. Understanding Institutional Diversity. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. doi:

Poffenberger M. (Ed.). (1990). Keepers of the Forest: Land ManagementAlternatives in Southeast Asia. West Hartford: Kumarian Press.

Praputra, A. V., Sahide, M. A. K., & Santosa, A. (2015). Menata Era Baru Kehutanan Masyarakat. Policy Brief. Forum Komunikasi Kehutanan Masyarakat. Bogor. doi:

Preston, T., & ’T Hart, P. (1999). Understanding and evaluating bureaucratic politics: The nexus between political leaders and advisory systems. Political Psychology, 20(1), 49–98. doi:

Raharjo, K. D., & Ulifah, C. N. (2014). Struktur Organisasi dan Sumberdaya Manusia pada KPHP: Pembelajaran dari Perum Perhutani pp 125–180. In : Ekawati, S., Hernowo, B. (Eds). Operasionalisasi Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan (KPH): Langkah Awal Menuju Kemandirian. Sleman: PT. Kanisius.

Rahmina. (2011). Pilihan Skema Pengelolaan Hutan Berbasis Masyarakat dalam Mitigasi Perubahan Iklim. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH-Forests and Climate Change Programme (FORCLIME).

Rizal, A., Dewi, I. N., & Kusumedi, P. (2011). Kajian Strategi Implementasi Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan ( KPH ): Studi Kasus di Kabupaten Tana Toraja. Jurnal Analisis Kebijakan Kehutanan, 8(2), 167–188.

Sahide, M. A. K., & Giessen, L. (2015). Land Use Policy The fragmented land use administration in Indonesia – Analysing bureaucratic responsibilities influencing tropical rainforest transformation systems. Land Use Policy, 43, 96–110. doi:

Sahide, M. A. K., Maryudi, A., Supratman, S., & Giessen, L. (2016). Is Indonesia utilising its international partners? The driving forces behind Forest Management Units. Forest Policy and Economics, 69, 11–20. doi:

Sahide, M. A. K., Supratman, S., Maryudi, A., Kim, Y. ., & Giessen, L. (2016). Decentralisation policy as recentralisation strategy: forest management units and community forestry in Indonesia. International Forestry Review, 18(1), 78–95. doi:

Schusser, C. (2013). Who determines biodiversity? An analysis of actors’ power and interests in community forestry in Namibia. Forest Policy and Economics, 36, 42–51. doi:

Schusser, C., Krott, M., Movuh, M. C. Y., Logmani, J., Devkota, R. R., Maryudi, A., & Salla, M. (2014). Comparing community forestry actors in Cameroon, Indonesia, Namibia, Nepal and Germany. Forest Policy and Economics, 1–7. doi:

Setyarso, A., Djajono, A., Nugroho, B., Wulandari, C., Suwarno, E., Kartodihardjo, H., & Sardjono, M. A. (2014). Strategi Pengembangan KPH dan Perubahan Struktur Kehutanan Indonesia. Direktorat Jenderal Planologi Kehutanan.

Soepijanto, B., Zauhar, S., Haryono, B. S., & Soeaidy, S. (2013). Model of Effective Community Empowerment Policy of Forestry Partnership to Forest Community in Mesuji-Lampung, 17(1), 7–14.

Subarudi. (2014). Pengelolaan Wisata Alam Menuju Kemandirian KPH pp 201–228. In : Ekawati, S., Hernowo, B. (Eds). Operasionalisasi Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan (KPH): Langkah Awal Menuju Kemandirian. Sleman: PT. Kanisius.

Suharjito, D. (2009). Devolusi Pengelolaan Hutan di Indonesia : Perbandingan Indonesia dan Philipina (Devolution of Forest Management in Indonesia : Comparison between Indonesia and Philipina). Jmht, XV(3), 123–130.

Suhirman, Alamsyah, Z., Zaini, A., Sulaiman, & Nikoyan, A. (2012). Studi Perencanaan & Penganggaran bagi Pengelolaan Hutan berbasis Masyarakat di Indonesia. Jakarta: Kemitraan.

Sumanto, S. E. (2009). Kebijakan Pengembangan Perhutanan Sosial dalam Perspektif Resolusi Konflik. Jurnal Analisis Kebijakan Kehutanan, 6(1), 13–25.

Supratman. (2007). Desain Model Pembangunan Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan (KPH) di Kabupaten Mamuju Provinsi Sulawesi Barat. Jurnal Perennial, 5(1) : 36-44.

Suryandari, E. Y., & Alviya, I. (2009). Implementation and Strategy of Banjar Forest Mangement Unit Development. Jurnal Analisis Kebijakan Kehutanan, 6(1), 57–70. Retrieved from

Suwarno, E., Ratnaningsih, A. T., & Insusanty, E. (2016). Implikasi Terbitnya Undang-Undang Nomor 23 Tahun 2014 Terhadap Pembangunan Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan Di Provinsi Riau. Wahana Forestra: Jurnal Kehutanan, 11(1), 9–21.

Thompson, H. (1999). Social forestry: An analysis of Indonesian forestry policy. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 29(2), 187–201.

Wiratno. (2014). Hutan Kemasyarakatan dan Hutan Desa Sebagai Solusi Konflik Pengelolaan Hutan serta Penyelamatan Habitat dan Perlindungan Keragaman Hayati pp. 73-85 dalam : I. Hakim dan L.R. Wibowo (Ed.). Hutan Untuk Rakyat : Jalan Terjal Reforma Agraria di Sektor Kehutan, LKiS Yogya.

Wittrock, B., Lindström, S., & Zetterberg, K. (1982). Implementation Beyond Hierarchy: Swedish Energy Research Policy. European Journal of Political Research, 10(2), 131–143.

Yasmi, Y. (2008). Peningkatan Konflik dalam Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Hutan pp. 287-298 dalam : H. Adnan, D. Tadjudin, E.L. Yuliani, H. Komarudin, D. Lopulalan, Y. L. Siagian dan D.W. Munggoro (Ed.). Belajar dari Bungo : Mengelola Sumberdaya Alam di Era Desentralisasi. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).

Regulations Materials

Law 41 of 1999 on Forestry. Undang-Undang Nomor : 41 Tahun 1999 tentang kehutanan

Law 23 of 2014 on Local government. Undang-Undang Nomor : 23 Tahun 2014 tentang pemerintahan daerah.

Government Regulation 6 of 2007 on forest governance and forest management planning and forest utilization. Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor : 6 Tahun 2007 tentang tata hutan dan penyusunan rencana pengelolaan hutan, serta pemanfaatan hutan

MOEF Regulation P.83 of 2016 on Social Forestry. Peraturan Menteri Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Nomor : P.83/Menlhk/Setjen/Kum.1/10/2016 tentang perhutanan sosial.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Forest and Society is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

View My Stats

Forest and Society has been indexed/registered/mentioned in : 


View full indexing services