Determining Image Opacity in Broiler Respiratory Radiographic Using ImageJ and Ansel Adam’s Zone System

Ikhwan Wirahadikesuma, Koekoeh Santoso, Hera Maheshwari, Akhiruddin Maddu


The diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory, lung, and air sacs generally uses radiographic images by radiologists. Therefore, the results are very subjective, causing differences in the interpretation and diagnosis among different radiologists. A radiographic image reading needs to be made in the form of a simple, fast, and accurate algorithm. The study aimed to reduce subjectivity and be easily carried out by radiology medical personnel, especially veterinarians. This study carried out density measurements by image processing using ImageJ software on 14 radiographic images of broiler chickens. Furthermore, the density value is associated with the Ansel Adam's - grayscale system to determine the opacity of respiratory tract tissues/organs, which were previously inhaled by one of them with chitosan-iopamidol nanoparticles using a nebulizer. The results of density measurements for the category of opacity in radiographic images are that seven spot areas lead brighter (radiopaque) only in chickens that are inhaled mist maker of chitosan-iopamidol nanoparticles. Then the determination of the value range is obtained average value on two ventrodorsal radiographic images, which are inhaled by mist maker of chitosan-iopamidol nanoparticles and chitosan nanoparticle compressor. The conclusion of this study was only in chickens that were infested with mist maker chitosan-iopamidol, whose radiographic image had a radiopaque spot and middle-value area.



Ansel Adam’s, ImageJ, radiology, radioopaque, subjectivity

Full Text:



Adams A, Baker R., 2005. Zone System (Photography) in The Negative. The Ansel Adams Photography Series Book 2; p. 47-97. Little, Brown and Company, New York

Al-Fotawei R, Ayoub AF, Heath N, Naudi KB, Tanner KE, Dalby MJ, Mc Mahon J., 2014. Radiological Assessment of BioengineeredCorbanie EA, Matthijs MGR, Van Eck JHH, Remon JP, Landman WJM, Vervaet C. 2006. Deposition of differently sized airborne microspheres in the respiratory tract of chickens, Avian Pathology. (35-6); p. 475–485. DOI: 10.1080/03079450601028845

Dogan GK, Takici I., 2018. Anatomy of Respiratory System in Poultry, MAE Vet Fak Derg, 3 (2); p. 141-147, DOI: 10.24880/maeuvfd.433946.

Dougherty G., 2009. Digital Image Processing for Medical Applications, Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU. United Kingdom; p. 137-139.

Fitriandari BQ, Pramanik F, Farah RA., 2018. Gambaran Proses Penyembuhan Lesi Periapikal pada Radiografi Periapikal Menggunakan Software ImageJ, Padjadjaran Journal of Dental Researchers and Students. vol. 2 (1); p 116-122

Gavet OP, Pines J., 2010. Progressive Activation of CyclinB1-Cdk1 Coordinates Entry to Mitosis. Developmental Cell. vol. 18 (4); p. 533-543. Elsevier

Ikawati Z., 2011. Penyakit Sistem Pernapasan dan Tata Laksana Terapinya. Yogyakarta: Bursa Ilmu; p. 263-275.

Kobienia VM., 2008. Schnittbildanatomie des Haushuhnes (Gallus domesticus) anhand von sekundären Scheibenplastinaten, Sectional anatomy of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) using the secondary sheet plastinates, the Veterinary Faculty of the Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich/München; p. 19-47

Lin JS, Liao YY, Tai SC, 2012. Color Correction with Zone System for Color Image, International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications (JDCTA), vol. 6 (10); p. 257-265 doi:10.4156/jdcta.vol6.issue10.30

Listyalina, L., 2017. Peningkatan Kualitas Citra Foto Rontgen Sebagai Media Deteksi Kanker Paru, Jurnal Teknologi Informasi, vol. XII (34); p. 100-118.

Maina JN., 2008. Functional morphology of the avian respiratory system, the lung–air sac system: efficiency built on complexity. Ostrich, vol. 79 (2); p. 117–132. doi:10.2989/ostrich.2008.

Maina JN. 2016. Pivotal debates and controversies on the structure and function of the avian respiratory system: setting the record straight. Biological Reviews, vol. 92(3); p 1475–1504.doi:10.1111/brv.12292

McKinnis LN., 2010. Fundamentals of musculoskeletal imaging, 3rd edition, ISBN 978-0-8036-1946-3 1, F.A.Davis Company 1915 Arch Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103; p. 10-13.

Powell FL., 2015., Respiration. Chapter-13, Sturkie’s Avian Physiology, Editor Colin G. Scanes, Six Edition. USA: Academic Press, Elsevier; p. 301-307doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-407160-5.00013-0

Schmidt MF, Wild M., 2014. The Respiratory Vocal System of Songbirds: Anatomy, Physiology, and Neural Control. Progress in Brain Research, vol. 212; p 297-335. Elsevier.

Shilo M, Reuveni T, Motiei, M, Popovtzer R., 2012. Nanoparticles as computed tomography contrast agents: current status and future perspectives. Nanomedicine. vol 7 (2); p 257-269.

Sumantri DDS, Firman RN, Azhari A., 2017. Analisis radiografi periapikal menggunakan software imageJ pada abses periapikal setelah perawatan endodontik. Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia, vol. 3(1); p. 29-34.

Tell LA, Stephens K, Teague SV, Pinkerton KE, Raabe OG., 2012. Study of Nebulization Delivery of Aerosolized Fluorescent Microspheres to The Avian Respiratory Tract. HHS Public Access. : Avian Dis, vol. 56 (2); p. 381–386

Vega JCDL, Häfeli UO., 2015. Utilization of nanoparticles as X-ray contrast agents for diagnostic imaging applications. Contrast Media Mol. Imaging, vol. 10 (2); p. 81 –95

Watiningsih T., 2012. Pengolahan Citra Foto Sinar-X Untuk Mendeteksi Kelainan Paru. Teodolita, vol.13 (1); p. 14-30.

Wirahadikesuma I, Santoso K, Maheshwari H, Maddu A., 2019. Efektivitas Pemberian Nanopartikel Kitosan-Iopamidol Menggunakan Nebulizer Pada Saluran Pernapasan Ayam Broiler Berdasarkan Hasil Pencitraan Sinar-x. JCPS (Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Sciences), vol. 3(1); p.198-205

Xavier‐Souza G, Vilas‐Boas AL, Fontoura MSH, Araújo‐Neto CA, Andrade SC, Cardoso, MRA, ... & PNEUMOPAC‐Efficacy Study Group., 2013. The inter‐observer variation of chest radiograph reading in acute lower respiratory tract infection among children. Pediatric pulmonology, vol. 48(5); p. 464-469

Yoshimura K, Shimamoto K, Ikeda M, Ichikawa K, Naganawa, S., 2011. A Comparative Contrast Perception Phantom Image of Brain CT Study Between High-grade and Low-Grade Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) in Electronic Medical Charts. Physica Medica, vol. 27 (2); p. 109–116. doi:10.1016/j.ejmp.2010.06.001



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

science and company

JRVI Stats



Jurnal Riset Veteriner Indonesia
Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine. Hasanuddin University
ISSN Print: 2614-0187, ISSN Online: 2615-2835

Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan KM.10 Tamalanrea, Makassar 90245