Migrasi Dan Keselamatan Insan: Kajian Kes Pemerdagangan Kanak-Kanak Di Thailand

Firdaus Misran, Zarina Othman

Abstract


Abstract : Non-military threats appear to have dominated the world’s political agenda, mainly consisting of human trafficking, drug trafficking, foreign migrants smuggling and others. Today, the human trafficking issue has turned into the exploitative form such as commercial sex, especially with regards to victimizing children. This phenomenon has extended to almost every corner in the world. This study is carried out in order to comprehend the development and growth of sex industries exploiting children in Thailand, which pose a threat to Thailand’s human security apparatus. Child sex exploitation in Thailand is associated with the presence of organized crime groups, which pose a threat to personal security, community security, and health security within the human security segments, thus threatening human security as a whole. This study has three main objectives, first; to identify the factors that facilitate the sex industry in Thailand, particularly those stemmed within Thailand’s communities and the South East Asian region in general. Second, to identify the role of organized crime groups luring children into sex industries which also pose a threat to Thailand’s human security. Third, to comprehensively analyse the human security threat in the personal, community and health dimensions, initiated by the booming child sex industries in Thailand. The study employs primary data collection methods such as interviews with Thai people, who once lived in the locations where sexual exploitation of children were held, an interview with the government official who’s in charge of the Malaysia-Thailand border surveillance activities, and also the method of observation which is a field work visit to Thailand’s sex destination ‘hot spot’. Secondary data was collected from a range of selected printed document and research publications such as books, journals and PhD theses. The result shows that organized crime groups are taking advantage of the social and economic pressure among Thai people. As a strategy these groups attract their interest and offer them a benefit, facilitating the growth of the commercial sex industry in Thailand. The phenomenon of Child Sex in Thailand is threatening human security in terms of personal, community and health security. Children are victims of exploitation, sexual violence and infectious diseases such as STI, STD, HIV and AIDS.

Key words : child sex exploitation, human security, national security, organized crimes group, human trafficking.

Abstrak : Ancaman bukan ketenteraan dilihat semakin mendominasi agenda politik dunia antaranya termasuklah isu pemerdaganggan orang, pengedaran dadah, penyeludupan migran asing dan sebaginya. Isu pemerdaganggan orang pada hari ini dilihat daripada sudut eksploitasi seperti seks komersial, terutamanya yang berlaku di kalangan kanak-kanak di mana merupakan suatu fenomena global yang wujud hampir di setiap negara di seluruh dunia. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji bagaimanakah industri seks yang mengeksploitasi kanak-kanak di Thailand berkembang dan mengancam keselamatan insan di negara tersebut. Eksploitasi seks kanak-kanak di Thailand melibatkan kumpulan jenayah terancang dan ini mengancam keselamatan personal, komuniti dan kesihatan justeru ianya mengancam keselamatan insan. Tiga objektif utama kajian ini adalah untuk mengenalpasti faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan industri seks kanak-kanak tumbuh berkembang dalam komuniti masyarakat terutamanya negara Thai dan umumnya dirantau Asia Tenggara. Kedua, untuk mengenalpasti peranan sindiket jenayah terancang dalam mempengaruhi keselamatan insan yang wujud disebabkan oleh industri eksploitasi seks kanak-kanak di negara Thai. Ketiga, untuk menganalisa ancaman keselamatan insan dalam aspek personal, komuniti dan kesihatan yang dibawa oleh industri seks komersial kanak-kanak di negara Thailand. Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah pengumpulan data primer iaitu temubual bersama masyarakat Thai yang pernah tinggal lokasi-lokasi eksploitasi seks komersial kanak-kanak berlangsung, temubual pegawai kerajaan yang menjaga sempadan negara Malaysia- Thailand dan juga kaedah pemerhatian ‘lokasi panas’ di Thailand. Selain itu pengumpulan data sekunder turut dilakukan melalui dokumen dan penyelidikan bercetak terpilih seperti penerbitan bahan buku-buku berkaitan, jurnal dan tesis Ph.D. Dapatan kajian mendapati sindiket jenayah terancang mengambil kesempatan diatas tekanan ekonomi dan sosial yang berlaku dikalangan masyarakat Thai sebagai strategi untuk mereka mendapatkan keuntungan dan menjadi nadi penting kepada pertumbuhan industri seks komersial di Thailand. Eksploitasi seks komersial kanak-kanak di Thailand adalah merupakan suatu fenomena yang mengancam keselamatan insan dari sudut personal, komuniti dan kesihatan, Kanak-kanak merupakan mangsa eksploitasi yang dilihat menjadi mangsa kepada kekejaman seksual serta ancaman penyakit berjangkit seperti STI, STD, HIV dan AIDS.

Kata kunci : eksploitasi seks kanak-kanak, keselamatan insan, keselamatan negara, kumpulan jenayah terancang, pemerdagangan orang.


Keywords


Eksploitasi seks kanak-kanak; keselamatan insan; keselamatan negara; kumpulan jenayah terancang; pemerdagangan orang

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