Historical and Cultural Factors in Indonesian Civil-Military Relations

Agussalim Burhanuddin

Abstract


Abstrak : Perdebatan teoretis dalam bidang hubungan sipil-militer telah didominasi oleh teori pemisahan yang mengakui perbedaan antara lembaga sipil dan militer, dan interaksi antara mereka harus dipertahankan sebagai dalam bentuk yang sipil memegang kontrol atas militer. Namun, Rebecca Schiff mengusulkan teori konkordansi sebagai alternatif yang menunjukkan suatu bentuk integrasi antara militer dan masyarakat.  Teori   konkordansi   digunakan   sebagai   model   analisis   untuk   mengatasi   faktor-faktor sejarah  dan  budaya  dalam  hubungan  sipil-militer  Indonesia. Penelitian ini  menggunakan  empat aspek  konkordansi  sebagai  instrumen  untuk  mengukur  apa  tingkat  kesepakatan  dapat  dicapai  antara militer, elit politik, dan masyarakat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa meskipun faktor sejarah dan budaya telah memainkan peran penting dalam membentuk hubungan sipil-militer di Indonesia, mereka gagal  untuk  membangun  hubungan  sipil-militer  baik  yang  didasarkan  pada  gagasan  supremasi  sipil. Kata kunci: teori konkordansi, hubungan sipil-militer, faktor sejarah dan budaya, supremasi sipil.

Kata kunci : Teori konkordansi, hubungan sipil-militer, faktor sejarah dan budaya, supremasi sipil.

Abstract : The theoretical debate in area of civil-military relations has been dominated by separation theories which recognize the distinction between civilian and military institutions, and the interaction between them should be maintained as in a form that civilian holds control over the military. However, Rebecca Schiff proposes the concordance theory as an alternative that suggests a form of integration between the military and society. This theory of concordance is used as a model of analysis for addressing historical and cultural factors in Indonesian civil-military relations. The study uses the four aspects of concordance as instruments to measure on what level of agreement can be achieved among the military, political elites, and society. The result shows that although historical and cultural factors have played important roles in shaping civil-military relations in Indonesia, they fail to build good civil-military relations which is based on the idea of civilian supremacy.

Key words : The  concordance  theory,  civil-military  relations, historical  and  cultural  factors, civilian supremacy.


Keywords


Teori Konkordansi; Hubungan Sipil-Militer; Faktor Sejarah Dan Budaya; Supremasi Sipil

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