Pendekatan Konstruktif Asean – Myanmar : Sorotan Kajian Lepas

Aini Fatihah Roslam, Nor Azizan Idris, Zarina Othman

Abstract


Abstract : Myanmar (Burma) as a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) became the centre of regional attention when the United States (US) and the European Union (EU) imposed economic sanctions on the country. Myanmar’s membership is said to be hampering image and credibility of ASEAN. In addition, the Rohingya’s human rights issue has also affected Myanmar’s relations with regional Islamic states. However, ASEAN accepts Myanmar’s membership hoping its political system will be more social oriented and more democratic. In this light, this article poses a question. Has ASEAN’s constructive approach successfully democratized Myanmar? ASEAN utilizes the constructive approach towards Myanmar rather than isolating it in order to pave way for Myanmar’s democratization. This study employs library research and secondary data from other sources. The literature review shows that even though Myanmar’s political system is yet to be fully democratized, ASEAN’s constructive approach has indeed brought Myanmar closer to be more democratic compared to its more socialist system earlier on. The election and the release of Aung San Suu Kyi, the chairperson of the National League for Democracy (NLD) and main opposition leader in Myanmar in 2010, are the indicators of this progress. It is with the hope that this literature review will contribute to the accumulation of knowledge in the field of democracy research, democratization, and the role of ASEAN in the discipline of International Relations.

Key words : ASEAN, democracy, Myanmar, constructive approach, SPDC

Abstrak : Keahlian Myanmar (Burma) dalam Persatuan Negara-negara Asia Tenggara (ASEAN) pada tahun 1997 menjadi isu dalam hubungan serantau kerana Amerika Syarikat dan Kesatuan Eropah telah mengenakan sekatan ekonomi terhadapnya. Hal ini kerana, keahliannya menjejaskan kredibiliti dan imej ASEAN. Malah isu diskriminasi hak asasi kaum Rohingya di Myanmar turut memberi kesan terhadap hubungan antara Myanmar dengan negara Islam serantau. Namun, ASEAN menerima keahlian Myanmar dengan tujuan ianya akan dapat mensosialisasikan sistem politik negara tersebut ke arah yang lebih demokratik. Persoalannya, sejauh manakah pendekatan konstruktif ASEAN berjaya dalam usahanya menjadikan Myanmar sebuah negara demokrasi. ASEAN menggunapakai pendekatan konstruktif berhubung dengan kes Myanmar daripada meminggirkannya, kerana dengan ini memberi ruang pada Myanmar untuk lebih dekat dengan ’demokrasi’. Penyelidikan ini menggunakan kaedah kajian kepustakaan dan bersumberkan data sekunder. Sorotan kajian menunjukkan walaupun Myanmar masih belum menjadi negara yang mengamalkan sistem politik demokrasi, namun pendekatan konstruktif yang diambil oleh ASEAN berjaya membawa negara tersebut ke arah yang lebih ’demokratik’ berbanding sebelumnya yang bersifat sosialis. Pilihan Raya Kecil dan pembebasan Aung San Suu Kyi, Pengerusi Parti Liga Demokratik Kebangsaan (NLD) iaitu parti demokratik paling dominan di Myanmar pada tahun 2010, menunjukkan perubahan tersebut. Adalah diharapkan sorotan kajian ini dapat menyumbang ke arah pengumpulan khazanah ilmu terutamanya dalam bidang kajian demokrasi dan pendemokrasian serta kajian ASEAN dalam disiplin Hubungan Antarabangsa.

Kata kunci : ASEAN, demokrasi, Myanmar, pendekatan konstruktif, SPDC


Keywords


ASEAN; demokrasi; Myanmar; pendekatan konstruktif; SPDC

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