Reintegrasi Etno-Nasionalisme Separatis pada Nasionalisme Indonesia Raya: Studi Etno-Nasionalisme Aceh Pasca Damai

Zulham Zulham

Abstract


Tulisan ini membahas model dan tantangan nasionalisme Indonesia.Pendekatan yang dignunakan adalah pendekatan historis.Etno-nasionalisme dianggap sebagai ancaman latenyang tak terduga bagi negara modern, khususnya Indonesia negara kepulauan terdiri berbagai wilayah etnis. Tujuan paper ini adalah untuk menganalisis faktor yang mendorong etno-nasioalisme Acehkepada disintegrasi bangsa dan tujuan selanjutnya bagaimana reintegrasi etno-nasionalisme Aceh pada nasionalisme Indonesia Raya pasca perdamaian untuk mengakhiri konflik yang berkepanjangan antara pemerintah Indonesia dan Mantan Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (GAM).Adapun teori dan konsep yang digunakan dalam tulisan ini adalah etno nasionalisme, nasionalisme, kedaulatan.Metode  yang dipakai adalah kajian pustaka (library research), dengan analisis kandungan (content analysis) dan menggunakan instrumen wacana (discourse).Selanjutnya data dialisis secara dekriptif dengan hasil kajian sebagai berikut:Elit politik Indonesia mengatur Indonesia sebagai negara yang tidak berkearifan lokal. Keanekaragaman etno-budaya harus dihapus. Perbedaan etnis harus diubah menjadi Indonesia yang baru dibentuk (Indonesia Raya). Hasil berikutnya adalah pemerintah dapat mengakomodir perbedaandi Aceh, dengan cara menjadikan etnonasionalisme daerah sebagai kebenikaan yang inspiratif, sehingga etnis nasionalis daerah akan terintegrasi seiring berjalannya waktu, ini merupakan imbas positif dari pada keikutsertaan pengayoman pemerintah pusat terhadap etnis-nasionalisme Aceh tersebut.Bentuk usaha akomodir ini telah dilakukan Pemerintah Indonesia dalam bentuk memorandum of understanding-nya dengan warga Aceh, telah menjembatani perbedaan nasionalisme antara RI dan Aceh melalui formasi Partai Lokal dan lainnya. Ini merupakan embrio meghidupkan kembali rasa memiliki ke-Indonesiaan Aceh melalui demokrasi lokal yang dibangun oleh pemerintah pusat, sehingga sampai saat ini, tujuan Aceh untuk merdeka berbalik arah kepada reintegrasi Aceh terhadap Indonesia seutuhnya.


Keywords


Reintegrasi; Etno-Nasionalisme; Separatis; Nasionalisme; Aceh Damai

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aguswandi. Civil society: the missing peace of peace building. Retrieved from: http://bib.cfc.dnd.ca/ipac20/ipac.jsp?session=1H39313W041G4.29427&profile=cfc&uri=link=3100016~!151629~!3100001~!3100002&aspect=subtab46&menu=search&ri=1&source=~!horizon&term=Peace-building+--+Japan.&index=SUBJECT. Diakses tanggal 23 Maret 2016.

Arifianto, Alexander R. (2008). "Contesting the Nation: Competing Nationalisms in Indonesia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual National Conference, Palmer House Hotel, Hilton, Chicago, ILOnline . 2009-05-23 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p268416_index.html.Diakses tanggal 24 Maret 2016.

Ballard, John B. (2008). Triump of Self-determination: operation stabilize and United Nations peace making in East Timor. USA: Praeger Security International.

Brubaker, Rogers and David, D. Laitin.(1998). Ethnic and nationalist violence. Source: Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 24 (1998), pp. 423-452. Published by Annual Reviews. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/223488.

Bertrand, Jacques. (2002). National Models?, Ethno nationalist Violence and Democratic Consolidation: an analysis of three ethno nationalist movements in Indonesia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston Marriott Copley Place, Sheraton Boston & Hynes Convention Center, Boston, MassachusettsOnline <.PDF>. 2009-05-26 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p66407_index.html.Diakses tanggal 25 Maret 2016.

Bowen, John R. (2005). Normative pluralism in Indonesia: regions, religions, and ethnicity. Retrieved from: http://artsci.wustl.edu/~anthro/research/bowen/Normative%20Pluralism%20in%20Indonesia.pdf.Diakses tanggal 25 Maret 2016.

Bowen, John. (2007). The new anthropology of ethnicity and identity and why it matters for Aceh and Indonesia. First International Conference of Aceh and Indian Ocean Studies.By ARI, BRR.Singapore-Indonesia.

Braisted, William R. (1954). Nationalism in Eastern Asia. Source: The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 26, No. 4 (Dec., 1954), pp. 356-363. Published by: The University of Chicago Press. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1876112. Diakses tanggal 27 Maret 2016.

Brown, David. (2001). Why might constructed nationalist and ethnic ideologies come into confrontation with each other? Working paper series No. 17 (Nov., 2001). Southeast Asia Research Centre (SEARC). City University of Hongkong.

Blaskett, Bev. (2006). Insurgency movements: Indonesia and Aceh. University of Ballarat. Retrievedfrom:http://uobcommunity.ballarat.edu.au/~bblaskett/index.html/SOCOG%202103%20Insurgency/Old%20notes%20Aceh.pdf. Diakses tanggal 23 April 2016.

Calhoun, Craig. (1993). Nationalism and ethnicity. Source: Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 19 (1993), pp. 211-239. Published by: Annual Reviews. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2083387. Diakses tanggal 16 April 2016.

Chandra, Siddharth. (1999). Colonial policy, wage inequality, and the birth of nationalism: the case of the Dutch East Indies. Retrieved from: http://eh.net/Clio/Conferences/ASSA/Jan_00/chandra.pdf.Diakses tanggal 20 April 2016.

Drake, Christine. (1992). National integration in China and Indonesia.Geographical Review, Vol. 82, No. 3 (Jul., 1992), pp. 295-312.Published by American Geographical Society. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/215353. Diakses tanggal 12 April 2016.

Egyankosh. Some concepts: Imperialism, nationalism, fascism, Revolution. Rtrieved from: http://www.egyankosh.ac.in/bitstream/123456789/26167/1/Unit2.pdf. Diakses tanggal 17 April 2016

Hah, Chong-Do and Jeffrey Martin. (1975). Toward a Synthesis of conflict and integration theories of nationalism. Source: World Politics, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Apr., 1975), pp. 361-386. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2010125. Diakses tanggal 17 April 2016.

He, Baogang and Anthony Reid. (2004). Special issue editor’s introduction: fourapproaches to the Aceh question. Asian Ethnicicty, Volume 15, Number 3, October 2004. Taylor & Francis Ltd. DOI: 10.1080/1463136042000259752. Retrieved from: http://www.chinesedemocratization.com/English%20Website/frame/materials/journal/english/HeReid.pdf.Diakses tanggal 17 April 2016.

Heywood, Andrew. (2000). Key concepts in politics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Heywood, Andrew. (2007). Politics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hoey, Brian A. (2003). Nationalism in Indonesia: building imagined and intentional communities through transmigration. Ethnology Vol. 42, No. 2. Spring 2003, pp. 109-26, c/o Department of Anthropology, The University of Pittsburg, Pittsburg PA 15260 USA. The University of Pittsburg.Retrieved from: http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/39189/2/hoey_ethnology_2003.pdf.Diakses tanggal 17 April 2016.

Hjerm. Mobilizing nationalist sentiments- Which factors affect nationalist sentiments in Europe? Retrieved from: http://www.uaces.org/pdf/papers/0801/2008_Hjerm.pdf.Diakses tanggal 12 April 2016.

Kingsbury, Damien. (2002). Interest, nations, and the state development: inability in archipelic Southeast Asia. Retrieved from: http://devnet.anu.edu.au/online%20versions%20pdfs/59/2059Kingsbury.pdf.Diakses tanggal 17 April 2016.

Klinken, Geery Van. (2003). Ethnicity in Indonesia.Retrievedfrom:http://ssrn.com/abstract=1127126. Diakses tanggal 19 April 2016.

Knight, David B. (1982). Identity and territory: Geographical perspectives on nationalism and regionalism. Source: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 72, No. 4 (Dec., 1982), pp. 514-531. Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd on behalf of the Association of American Geographers. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2563201. 19 April 2016.

Kreuzer, Peter. (2004) "Framing Violence.The Role of Culture and State Institutions. Asian Perspectives" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaOnline <.PDF>. 2009-05-26 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p73554_index.html. 19 April 2016.

Lane, Max. (2002). Indonesia: when ‘national unity’ is no longer voluntary. Green left weekly. Retrieved from: http://www.greenleft.org.au/2002/497/28018. 22 April 2016.

Lanti, Irman G. (2002). How to secure Indonesia’s cooperation in fight against militants.Retrievedfrom:http://www.rsis.edu.sg/publications/Perspective/IDSS012002.pdf. 22 April 2016.

Lawfield, Thomas. (2009). Nationalism in question.Retrieved from: http://www.monitor.upeace.org/innerpg.cfm?id_article=654#_ftn22. 19 April 2016.

Lintner, Bertil. (1999). Giving no quarter. Far Eastern Economic Review (FEER); Jul 29, 1999; 162, 30; ABI/INFORM Global.

Mabry, T. J. (2005). Nationalism and Language in Muslim Minority conflict: A Comparative Study of Language Policy in the Secessionist Politics of Mindanao and Aceh" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, HawaiiOnline <.PDF>. 2009-05-26 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p69478_index.html.

Mohammad Kasiram. (2008). Metodelogi Penelitian, Refleksi Pengembangan Pemahaman dan Penguasa Metodelogi Penelitian. Malang: UIN Press.

McIntyre, Angus. (1973). The greater Indonesia’ idea of Nationalism in Malaya and Indonesia. Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1 (1973), pp. 75-83. Published by Cambridge University Press. Stable URL:http://www.jstor.org/stable/312037.19 April 2016.

Plato. (2001). Nationalism. Retrievedfrom:http://plato.Stanford.edu/entries/nationalism.

Puhovski, Zarko. (2004). The moral basis of political restructuring in Chris Brown (Ed.,), political reconstructuring in Europe ethical perspective. London: Routledge.

Ramage, Dougles E. (2005). Politics in Indonesia: democracy, Islam and the ideology of tolerance. USA and Canada: Rouledge.

Siddique, Sharon and Leo Suryadinata. (1981-1982). Bumiputra and pribumi: economic nationalism (indiginism) in Malaysia and Indonesia. Published by Pacific affairs, University of British Columbia. Vol. 54, No. 4 (1981-1982), pp. 662-687.

Sundararaman, Shankari. Effects of globalization in plural societies: A case study of Indonesia. Retrievedfrom:http://www.asianscholarship.org/asf/ejourn/articles/Shankari%20Sundararaman2.pdf. Diakses tanggal 27 April 2016.

Suharsimi Arikunto.(2002). Prosedur Penelitian, suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: PT Rineke Cipta.

Schulze, Kirsten E. (2003). The other side to Aceh’s rebel. Retrievedfrom:http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Southeast_Asia/EG22Ae05.html.Diakses tanggal 23 April 2016.

Schulze, Kirsten E (2004). The free Aceh movement (GAM): anatomy of a separatist organization. Policy Studies 2. Washington: East West Center.

Smith, Anthony D. (1996). Culture, community and territory: the politics of ethnicity and nationalism. Source: International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 72, No. 3. Ethnicity and International Relations (Jul., 1996), pp. 445-458.Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Royal Institute of International Affairs. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2625550. Diakses tanggal 23 April 2016.

Savich, Carl K. Nationalism and War- Nationalism: origins and historical evolution. Source: www.MakNews.com.http://www.maknews.com/html/articles/savich/nationalism.pdf. Diakses tanggal 24 April 2016.

Smith, Dan. (2000). Ethical uncertainties of nationalism. Source: Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 37, No. 4, Special Issue on Ethnics of War and Peace (Jul., 2000), pp. 489-502. Published by: Sage Publication, Ltd. Stable URL:http://www.jstor.org/stable/424643.Diakses tanggal 23 April 2016.

Smith, Mike. (2009). Understanding nationalism.www.globalpolitician.com.

Spykman, Nicholas J. (1926). The social background of Asiatic nationalism. Source: The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 32, No. 3 (Nov., 1926), pp. 396-411. Published by: The University of Chicago Press. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2765541. Diakses tanggal 12 April 2016.

Tamir, Yael. (1995). Review work(s): Imagined communities by Benedict Anderson. Nationalism: Five roads to modernity by Liah Greenfeld. National identity by Anthony D. Smith.Source : World Politics, Vol. 47, No. 3 (Apr., 1995), pp. 418-440. Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Thaib, Lukman (2000). Aceh’s case: Possible solution to a festering conflict. Journal of Muslim minority affairs.Vol. 20, No.I, 2000.University Kebangsaan Malaysia. Pp. 105-110. Retrieved from: http://acehnet.tripod.com/thaib.htm.Diakses tanggal 12 April 2016.

Turner, Mark. (2005). From centralized authoritarianism to decentralized democracy: regional autonomy and the state in Indonesia in Marc Weller and Stefan Wolff (Eds.,), autonomy, self-government and conflict resolution: innovative approaches to institutional design in divided societies. New York: Routledge.

Vandenbosch, Amry. (1952). Nationalisma and religion in Indonesia. Source: Far Eastern Survey, Vol. 21, No. 18 (Dec. 17, 1952), pp. 181-185. Published by: Institute of Pacific Relations. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3023866. Diakses tanggal 19 April 2016.

Wanandi, Jusuf. (2002). Indonesia: a failed state? The Washington Quarterly, summer 2002, pp. 135-146.By The Center for Strategic and International Studies and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Retrieved from: http://www.twq.com/02summer/wanandi.pdf.Diakses tanggal 12 April 2016.

Weatherbee, Donald A. (2002). Indonesia: political drift and state decay. Retrieved from: http://www.watsoninstitute.org/bjwa/archive/9.1/Indonesia/Weatherbee.pdf.Diakses tanggal 19 April 2016.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexing:


________________________________________________________________
The POLITICS : Jurnal Magister Ilmu Politik Universitas Hasanuddin
 
Print ISSN (P-ISSN) : 2407-9138 Electronic ISSN (E-ISSN): 2527-2829

The POLITICS Editorial Office
FISIP UNHAS Building 2nd Floor
Tamalanrea Campus
Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan Km. 10, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, 90245
Email1: politicsjournal@unhas.ac.id
Email2: politicsunhas@gmail.com
Web: journal.unhas.ac.id/index.php/politics
Facebook: www.facebook.com/politicsunhas