Finahliyah Hasan


PESD becomes controversy because its legality under international law
particularly in Article 51 of the UN Charter does not set any explicit reference to this action. The academics differently interpret the contents of the chapter, some academics legalize preemptive and others regard it as an act that violates international law because it do not fulfill two conditions the right of defense permissible. The two conditions are there has been an armed attack and the UN Security Council has taken measures in advance. In addition to Article 51 of the
charter, legitimacy and precedent of preemptive action is also present in customary international law, which this action can be performed under certain conditions if meets two conditions: necessity and proportionality. The findings of this research are preemptive self-defense by the United States against Afghanistan does not violate international law. It is based on the transformation of various forms of threats and no longer just an attack by the armed forces as well as terrorism, so the rigid interpretation of Article 51 of the UN Charter is no longer adequate. In addition, the policy of United States meets the elements of necessity and proportionality, which preemptive action is permissible under customary international law.


Keywords: Self defence, Preemptive, International Law, Terrorism

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