Transformasi Rezim Internasional: Kasus International Whaling Commission dalam Menghentikan Perburuan Ikan Paus

Authors

  • Mawaddah Dhuha Rahmarilla Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang
  • Najamuddin Khairur Rijal Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang
  • Hamdan Nafiatur Rosyida Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang

Abstract

  This study analyzes why international regimes are undergoing transformation, with a study on the transformation of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) in stopping whaling. There has been a development of the focus and objectives of the IWC which has caused the IWC to transform from a whaling regulatory regime to a whale conservation regime. The theoretical foundation of Oran R. Young is used to identify the factors that lead to regime transformation, which include Internal Contradiction, Underlying Structure of Power, and Exogenous Forces. The research method used is qualitative-descriptive. Data collection techniques used literature studies obtained through organizational documents, journal articles, research results, and information from the media. The results show that the transformation of the IWC from a regime that regulates whaling to a regime of whale conservation is influenced by several things that are constantly running such as the implementation of a moratorium on commercial whaling, the dominance and influence of anti-poaching states in IWC policies, polarization of IWC membership, and pressure from environmental-based organizations.       Penelitian ini menganalisis mengapa rezim internasional mengalami transformasi, dengan studi pada transformasi International Whaling Commission (IWC) dalam menghentikan perburuan paus. Dalam perjalanannya, telah terjadi perkembangan fokus dan tujuan IWC yang menyebabkan IWC bertransformasi dari rezim pengatur perburuan paus menjadi rezim konservasi paus. Landasan teori dari Oran R. Young digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan transformasi rezim, yang meliputi kontradiksi internal, pergeseran struktur kekuasaan, dan kekuatan eksternal. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah kualitatif-deskriptif. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan studi kepustakaan yang diperoleh melalui dokumen organisasi, artikel jurnal, hasil penelitian, maupun informasi dari media. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa transformasi IWC dari rezim yang mengatur perburuan paus menjadi rezim konservasi paus dipengaruhi oleh beberapa hal yang berjalan konstan seperti implementasi moratorium perburuan paus komersial, dominasi dan pengaruh negara anti perburuan dalam kebijakan IWC, polarisasi keanggotaan IWC, serta tekanan dari organisasi berbasis lingkungan.    

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Anton, D. K. (2010). Dispute Concerning Japan’s JARPA II Program of ‘Scientific Whaling’ (Australia v Japan): A backgrounder. The Australian National University , 1-15.

Babcock, H. M. (2013). Why Changing Norms is a More Just Solution to the Failed International Regulatory Regime to Protect Whales than a Trading Program in Whale Shares . Stanford Environmental Law Vol, 32, , 11-13.

CITES. (n.d.). Appendices. Retrieved Oktober 8, 2021, from Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) : https://cites.org/eng/app/appendices.php

CITES. (2021). The Cites Species. Retrieved Agustus 10, 2021, from CITES: https://cites.org/eng/app/appendices.php

Fitzmaurice, M. (2017). International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling. Whaling and International Law , 1-2.

Fitzmaurice, M. (2015). Whaling and International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gehring, T. (1992). Dynamic International Regimes : lnstitutions for International Environmental Governance. Studies of the Environmental Law Network International Vol. 5 , 395-396.

Goodman, D. (2017). Evolution of the IWC Scientific Committee. Technical Reports of the Institute of Cetacean Research , 71-75.

Greenpeace. (n.d.). International Whaling Commission. Retrieved Agustus 10, 2021, from Greenpeace: https://www.greenpeace.org/usa/oceans/save-the-whales/international-whaling-commission/

Harris, A. (2005). The Best Scietifict Evidence Available: The Whaling Moratorium and Divergent Interpretations of Science . William and Marry Environmental Law and Policy Review, Vol, 25 , 381 .

Harris, A. W. (2005). The Best Scientific Evidence Available: The Whaling Moratorium. William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review Vol. 29 , 381.

Hurd, I. (2012). Almost Saving Whales: The Ambiguity of Succes at the International Whaling Commission. Ethics and International Affairs .

IWC. (n.d.). Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling. Retrieved Juni 25, 2021, from International Whaling Commission (IWC): https://iwc.int/aboriginal

IWC. (n.d.). Annual Report of the International Whaling Commission 2003: 55th Annual Meeting. Retrieved September 17, 2021, from International Whaling Commission (IWC): https://iwc.int/annual-reports

IWC. (n.d.). ICRW Convention. Retrieved Agustus 10, 2021, from International Whaling Commission (IWC) : https://iwc.int/convention

IWC. (n.d.). IWC Member Map. Retrieved Agustus 15, 2021, from International Whaling Commission (IWC): https://iwc.int/member-map

IWC. (n.d.). Plan for the Second Phase of the Japanese Whale Research Program under Special Permit in the Antarctic (JARPA II) - Monitoring of the Antarctic Ecosystem and Development of New Management Objectives for Whale Resources. Retrieved Agustus 22, 2021, from International Whaling Commission (IWC): https://www.icrwhale.org/eng/SC57O1.pdf

IWC. (n.d.). Special Permit Whaling (also known as Scientific Whaling). Retrieved Mei 17, 2020, from International Whaling Commission (IWC): https://iwc.int/permits

IWC. (n.d.). Whale Sanctuaries and Marine Protected Areas. Retrieved September 17, 2021, from International Whaling Commission (IWC): https://iwc.int/sanctuaries

Jackson, G. (n.d.). Regulation of Whaling. Retrieved Agustus 15, 2021, from Encyclopedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/topic/whaling/Regulation

Jr, R. C., Clapham, P. J., & Ivashchenko, Y. V. (2014). Emptying the Oceans: A Summary of Industrial. Marine Fisheries Review , 37-40.

McCurry, J. (2021, Desember 26). Japan’s Whaling Town Struggles to Keep 400 Years of Tradition Alive. Retrieved Desember 27, 2021, from The Guardian: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/dec/26/japans-whaling-town-struggles-to-keep-400-years-of-tradition-alive

McDonald, M. (2020, Januari 6). Anti-Whaling Vessel Damaged in a Collision at Sea. Retrieved Desember 5, 2021, from New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/07/world/asia/07whales.html

Morgera, E. (2004). Whale Sanctuaries: An Evolving Concept within the International Whaling Commission. Ocean Development & International Law Vol. 35 , 319-338.

Morishita, J., & Goodman, D. (2005). Role and Problems of the Scientifict Committee of the International Whaling Commission in Terms of Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Whale Stocks. The Institute of Cetacean Research Vol, 9 , 157-166.

Nagtzaam, G. J. (2009). The International Whaling Commission and the Elusive White Whale of Preservationism. William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review .

Ólafsson, G. H. (2012). Whaling and International Law. Thesis. . Akureyri: B.A Thesis for 180 ECTS Units in law at the Faculty of Law and Social. University of Akureyri.

Reeves, R. R. (2002). The Origins and Character of ’Aboriginal Subsistence’ Whaling: a Global Review. Mammal Review Vol. 32 , 76.

Sakaguchi, I. (2013). The Roles of Activist NGOs in the Development and Transformation of IWC Regime: the Interaction of Norms and Power. Journal of Envronmental Studies and Science

VOA. (2009, Oktober 9). Icelandic Whaling Could Spark Review of US Trade Sanctions . Retrieved Desember 27, 2021, from VOA: https://www.voanews.com/a/a-13-a-2003-08-06-4-icelandic/299180.html

Young, O. R. (1982). Regime Dynamics: the Rise and Fall of International Regimes. International Organization Vol. 36 , 277-297.

Downloads

Published

2022-11-27