Hasanuddin Journal of International Affairs https://journal.unhas.ac.id/index.php/hujia <p>Hasanuddin Journal of International Affairs discusses both theoretical and empirical findings. The main theory and concepts should refer to studies of International Relations, International Security, International Political Economy, or International and Transnational Studies. The articles published in Hasanuddin Journal of International Affairs have been double blind-reviewed by peer reviewers. The decision on whether the scientific article is accepted or not in this journal will be the Editorial Board’s right based on peer reviewer's recommendation.</p> <p>Please read and understand the author guidelines thoroughly. Author who submits a manuscript to the editors of Hasanuddin Journal of International Affairs should comply with the author guidelines. If the submitted manuscript does not comply with the guidelines or using a different format, it will be rejected by the editorial team before being reviewed. Editorial Team will only accept a manuscript that meets the specified formatting requirements.</p> Department of International Relations, Hasanuddin University en-US Hasanuddin Journal of International Affairs 2774-7328 Penanganan Perdagangan Narkoba di Indonesia oleh UNODC Tahun 2017-2020 https://journal.unhas.ac.id/index.php/hujia/article/view/30749 <div> <p><em><span lang="EN-GB">The high population in Indonesia makes it a potential market for transnational criminal groups to use Indonesia as a transit and distribution hub for drug trafficking. Given the current issues, UNODC, as an international organization specializing in addressing transnational crimes, assists Indonesia in dealing with the issue of drug trafficking. This research aims to understand the role of UNODC in tackling the problem of drug trafficking in Indonesia. The study employed a descriptive research design, and research data is obtained through library research by searching for data sources through available literature. This research is based on the theory of international organization roles according to Kelly Kate Pease, which explains that international organizations have several roles, including being problem solvers and capacity builders. The research findings show that UNODC plays a role in addressing the issue of drug trafficking in Indonesia through its role as a problem solver by formulating the Indonesia country program and alternative development programs. Meanwhile, through its role as a capacity builder, UNODC enhances the capacity of government officials, staff, and the community by treatnet family programme.</span></em></p> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span lang="EN-GB">Jumlah penduduk yang tinggi di Indonesia menjadikannya pasar potensial bagi kelompok kejahatan lintas negara untuk menggunakan Indonesia sebagai pusat transit dan distribusi perdagangan narkoba. Mengingat masalah saat ini, UNODC, sebagai organisasi internasional yang mengkhususkan diri dalam mengatasi kejahatan lintas negara, membantu Indonesia dalam menghadapi masalah perdagangan narkoba. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memahami peran UNODC dalam mengatasi masalah perdagangan narkoba di Indonesia. Studi ini menggunakan desain penelitian deskriptif, dan data penelitian diperoleh melalui penelitian perpustakaan dengan mencari sumber data melalui literatur yang tersedia. Penelitian ini didasarkan pada teori peran organisasi internasional menurut Kelly Kate Pease, yang menjelaskan bahwa organisasi internasional memiliki beberapa peran, termasuk sebagai penyelesaian masalah (problem solver) dan pembangun kapasitas (capacity builder). Temuan penelitian menunjukkan bahwa UNODC berperan dalam mengatasi masalah perdagangan narkoba di Indonesia melalui peran sebagai penyelesaian masalah dengan merumuskan program negara Indonesia dan program pengembangan alternatif. Sementara itu, melalui perannya sebagai pembangun kapasitas, UNODC meningkatkan kapasitas pejabat pemerintah, staf, dan masyarakat melalui program keluarga treatnet.</span></div> Eric Rolando Renitha Dwi Hapsari Copyright (c) 2024 Hasanuddin Journal of International Affairs 2024-02-15 2024-02-15 4 01 1 9 10.31947/hjirs.v4i01.30749 An Overview of Democratic Consolidation and Regression in Africa https://journal.unhas.ac.id/index.php/hujia/article/view/32505 <p>Democratic rule in Africa has been characterized by uneasiness resulting from autocratic tendencies in some of the countries. From the 1990s and due to a host of factors, African countries began to experience new lease of democratization with high hopes which soon turned out to be an illusion arising from series of developments within and outside the continent. Against this background, this paper examines dimensions of democratic rule in Africa noting its tendencies towards consolidation and regression as it manifests in different countries as well as factors that are responsible for the observed trend. Data for the study is obtained from secondary sources through examination of copious literature on the subject and examining occurrences in different parts of the continent. It is concluded that the region experienced overall, though uneven and not substantial progress towards democratization. While some have experienced tendency towards backsliding, some others have experienced considerable growth in some of the indexes that promote democratic consolidation. On the aggregate however, the continent cannot be said to be making substantial progress towards consolidation. This may be due to a host of factors that include peculiar political environment of each country. It thus recommended that African leaders need to introduce reforms that would cut across the different facets of the continent and that will take into account the specific character of each African country rather than the adoption of a policy based on its success in a different socio-political environment.</p> Abdulrasheed Muhammad Ruth Fanny-Kinge Copyright (c) 2024 Hasanuddin Journal of International Affairs 2024-02-19 2024-02-19 4 01 10 21 10.31947/hjirs.v4i01.32505 Kekuatan Normatif Diplomasi Lingkungan Uni Eropa Dalam Conference of the Parties (COP) 26 https://journal.unhas.ac.id/index.php/hujia/article/view/31938 <div> <p><em><span lang="IN">In 1992, the United Nations convened the world's largest and most important climate- related conference, the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During the event, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted. Through the UNFCCC, countries agree to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to prevent harmful interference from human activities in the climate system. The treaty now has 197 signatures. Since 1994, the United Nations has brought together almost every country in the world to attend the World Climate Summit (Conference of the Parties (COP)) which is usually held every year. This scientific article raises the commitment of the European Union (EU) in implementing COP 26 through environmental diplomacy analysis. This scientific article aims to identify and analyze the European Union's commitment to cooperation in COP 26 in dealing with all environmental problems. Scientific articles use qualitative research methods based on literature studies. The result of this scientific article is that the European Union conducts environmental diplomacy through COP 26 by carrying out the discussions in COP 26. The conclusion of this scientific article is that COP 26 has several objectives that must be carried out by the countries involved, including the EU.</span></em></p> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span lang="IN">Pada tahun 1992, PBB menyelenggarakan konferensi terkait iklim terbesar dan terpenting di dunia ialah KTT Bumi di Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Selama acara tersebut, Konvensi Kerangka Kerja PBB tentang Perubahan Iklim (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)) diadopsi. Melalui UNFCCC, negara-negara sepakat untuk menstabilkan konsentrasi gas rumah kaca di atmosfer untuk mencegah gangguan berbahaya dari aktivitas manusia di dalam sistem iklim. Perjanjian itu sekarang memiliki 197 tanda tangan. Sejak tahun 1994, PBB mempertemukan hampir setiap negara di dunia untuk menghadiri KTT Iklim Dunia (Conference of the Parties (COP)) yang biasa dilakukan di setiap tahunnya. Artikel ilmiah ini mengangkat komitmen Uni Eropa (UE) dalam melaksanakan COP 26 melalui analisis diplomasi lingkungan. Artikel ilmiah ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi dan menganalisis komitmen kerjasama Uni Eropa di dalam COP 26 di dalam penanganan perubahan iklim. Artikel ilmiah memakai metode penelitian kualitatif berdasarkan studi literatur. Hasil dari artikel ilmiah ini ialah Uni Eropa mengadakan diplomasi lingkungan melalui COP 26 dengan menjalankan bahasan-bahasan di dalam COP 26. Kesimpulan dari artikel ilmiah ini ialah COP 26 memiliki beberapa tujuan yang harus dilaksanakan oleh negara-negara yang terlibat, termasuk UE.</span></div> Yosua Saut Marulitua Gultom Steven Montesquieu Manurung Muhammad David Ferdian Hutauruk Muhammad Farid Gibran Wijaya Aliffa Augustin Copyright (c) 2024 Hasanuddin Journal of International Affairs 2024-02-15 2024-02-15 4 01 22 30 10.31947/hjirs.v4i01.31938 Eksternalisasi Konflik Internal Yaman Dalam Kerangka Analisis Internationalization of Conflict Theory https://journal.unhas.ac.id/index.php/hujia/article/view/32859 <div> <p><em><span lang="IN">This research discusses the Yemen conflict that was originally internal and then transformed into an international conflict due to the externalization process. The author sees that the increasingly complex development of the Yemen conflict was affected by the intervention of external actors in the conflict. This research aims to find out how Yemen's internal conflict transformed into an international conflict using the analytical framework of the Internationalization of Conflict Theory. Therefore, in examining the externalization of Yemen's internal conflict, the author uses the concept of escalation, with qualitative research methods. The research results show that the externalization of Yemen's internal conflict is demonstrated through the involvement of external actors such as Saudi Arabia and its coalition, the United States, Britain, France, Iran, and ISIS. In this case, the escalation of the Yemen conflict occurred because of the geographical proximity between Yemen and several countries such as Saudi Arabia, the similarity of identity or ideology between internal parties and external parties who intervened in the Yemen conflict, as well as the opportunities and interests of foreign parties in the Yemen conflict.</span></em></p> </div> <div> </div> <div> <p align="center"> </p> </div> <div> <p><span lang="EN-US">Penelitian ini membahas tentang konflik Yaman yang semula bersifat internal kemudian mengalami transformasi menjadi konflik internasional karena adanya proses eksternalisasi. Penulis melihat perkembangan konflik Yaman yang semakin kompleks sangat dipengaruhi oleh intervensi pihak asing dalam konflik tersebut. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui bagaimana konflik internal Yaman bertransformasi menjadi konflik internasional dengan menggunakan kerangka analisis Internationalization of conflict theory. Oleh karena itu, dalam menelaah eksternalisasi konflik internal Yaman, penulis menggunakan konsep eskalasi, dengan metode penelitian kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Eksternalisasi konflik internal Yaman ditunjukkan melalui keterlibatan aktor eksternal seperti, Arab Saudi dan koalisinya, Amerika Serikat, Inggris, Prancis, Iran, dan ISIS. Dalam hal ini, Eskalasi konflik Yaman terjadi karena adanya kedekatan secara geografis antara Yaman dengan sejumlah negara seperti Arab Saudi, adanya kesamaan identitas maupun ideologi antara pihak internal dengan pihak eksternal yang mengintervensi konflik Yaman, serta adanya peluang dan kepentingan pihak asing dalam konflik Yaman.</span></p> </div> Krisman Heriamsal Felix Broson Manurung Rhin Khairina Rahmat Copyright (c) 2024 Hasanuddin Journal of International Affairs 2024-02-19 2024-02-19 4 01 31 43 10.31947/hjirs.v4i01.32859