Water supply and sanitation status in educational institutions at Mirzapur of Tangail district, Bangladesh
AbstractThe study was conducted to assess the quality of drinking water supply and sanitation status in educational institutions at Mirzapurpourashava of Tangail district during the period of January to February 2014. The water samples were collected from tube wells of 15 different educational institutions, while a questionnaire survey of 150 respondents based on reconnaissance survey was performed in order to investigate the drinking water quality and sanitation status of 15 selected educational institutions. The study found the pH ranged from 7.23 to 7.95, EC from 264 to 542 µS/cm, TDS from 136 to 272 mg/l, DO from 1.90 to 4.30 mg/l, hardness from 120 to 298 mg/l, and Fe from0 to 10 mg/l. All the observed water quality parameters were relatively within the standard limits for Bangladesh except DO, whereas Fe concentrations in three primary schools also exceeded the standard value of Bangladesh drinking water quality of 0.3-1.0 mg/l. The survey results revealed that mainly two types of tube wells i.e. shallow tube wells and Tara pump tube wells were used for water supply in those educational institutions, while maximum tube wells were with a depth of 140-180 feet (47% of tube wells), 100-140 feet (23% of tube wells) and from 180-220 feet (rest 30%). No soap and/or toilet tissue was found in 40% toilets, while 60% toilets were with soap and/or toilet tissue facilities. The study observed that the existing water supply and sanitation facilities were inadequate and the situation was worst for primary educational institutions. Three institutions were found having a distance of less than 10m between toilet and source of drinking water which indicated the risk of ground water pollution.
M.F. Ahmed, M.M. Rahman, Water Supply &Sanitation: Rural and low income urban communities (ITN-Bangladesh, Center for Water Supply and Waste Management, BUET, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2000).
WHO (World Health Organization), Water, sanitation and hygiene links to health: Facts and figures. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2004. Available at: http://www.who.int/ water_sanitation_health/publications/facts2004/en/index.html
WHO (World Health Organization),Water, sanitation and hygiene standards for schools in low-cost settings. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2009.
WSSCC (Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council), Vision 21: A shared vision for hygiene, sanitation and water supply and a framework for action, Proceedings of the Second World Water Forum, The Hague, 17–22 March. Geneva, Switzerland.2000.
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), The Dakar Framework for Action. Education for all: meeting our collective commitments, UNESCO, Paris, France, 2000. Available at: http://www.unesco.org
BBS (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics), Report on the household income and expenditure survey 2011. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2011.
Banglapedia. National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2008.
S.M.I. Huq, M.D. Alam, A Handbook on Analyses of Soil, Plant and Water (Bangladesh-Australia Centre for Environmental Research, BACER-DU, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2005).
DoE (Department of Environment), Environmental quality standard for Bangladesh, Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF), Government of Bangladesh, Bangladesh,1993.