Genetic Diversity of Bali Cattle in Barru Regency Based on Phenotype Characteristics and Microsatelite DNA Identifier
AbstractSapi Bali is one of Indonesia germplasm, which has great potential to be developed as a national meat suppliers. Barru regency, South Sulawesi province is one of the purification center of Bali cattle in Indonesia. This study aimed to determine the genetic characteristics of Bali cattle in Barru regency based on identification of phenotype qualitative (horn shape and color of feathers) and quantitative traits (body size), as well as the identifier of microsatellite DNA diversity, in particular HEL9 and INRA035loci. Bali cattle phenotype characterization was done by identifying the typical qualitative properties owned by Bali cattle, as well as a quantitative trait such as body weight, body length, chest circumference and height. Blood samples were collected from about 80 heads of Bali cattle (35 males and 45 females). Extraction of genomic DNA using a DNA extraction kit (GeneJet Genomic DNA Extraction). PCR technique was then used to amplify DNA in microsatellite HEL9 and INRA035loci. Genetic diversity was calculated based on the frequency of alleles and genotypes, observed heterozygosity (Ho), expectated heterozygosity (He) and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The results showed that the predominant form of horns in males were silak bajeg while the females were silak manggulgangsa, while the percentage of normal color pattern (typical of Bali cattle) was 92.5% and the color pattern deviates ie. 7.5%. In HEL9 locus, alleles found were A and B with only AB genotype(100%). While at the INRA035 locus,were found three alleles ie. A (0.4813), B (0.50) and C (0.0187), with the most common genotype were AB (0.96). Based on shape horn and feather color, the phenotype characteristic of Bali cattle in the Barru regency were quite diverse, but the genetic diversity of DNA microsatellite observed quite low with only found two alleles (A and B) at HEL9 and 3 alleles (A, B and C ) at the INRA035 locus.
Abdullah, M. A. N., R.R. Noor, H. Martojo, dan D.D. Solihin. 2008. Karakterisasi genetik sapi Aceh dengan menggunakan dna mikrosatelit. J.Indon.Trop.Anim.Agric. 33.
Bishop, M.D., S.M. Kappes, J.W. Keele, R.T. Stone, I.F. Sunden, G.A. Hawkin, S.S. Toldo, R. Fries, M.D. Grosz, J. Voo, and C.W. Beattie. 1994. A genetic linkage map for cattle. Genetics. 136: 619-639.
Bradley, D.G. and E.P. Cunningham. 1999. Genetics Aspects of Domestication. In: Fries, R. And Ruvinsky, A., editor.The genetics of Cattle. New York : CABI Publishing. Hlm 15 – 31.
Handiwirawan, E. 2003.Penggunaan Mikrosatelit HEL9 dan INRA035 sebagai Penciri Khas Sapi Bali. Tesis. Program Pasca Sarjana, Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Handiwirawan, E., R. R. Noor, Muladno, and L. Schuler. 2003. The use of HEL9 and INRA035 mikrosatelites as specific markers for Bali cattle. Arch. Tierz., Dummerstorf 46: 503-512.
Handiwirawan, E. dan Subandriyo. 2004. Potensi dan keragaman sumberdaya genetik sapi bali.Lokakarya Nasional Sapi Potong. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Peternakan. Hlm. 50-60.
Hardjosubroto, W. 1994. Aplikasi Pemuliabiakan Ternak di Lapangan. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia.
Hardjosubroto, W. 1998. Pengantar Genetika Hewan. Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.
Levinson, G. and G. A. Gutman. 1987. Slipped-strand mispairing: a major mechanism for DNA sequence evolution. Mol. Biol. Evol. 4: 203-221
Li, W. H. and D. Graur. 1991. Fundamentals of Molecular Evolution Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
National Research Council. 1983. Little-Known Asian Animals with a Promising Economic Future. Washington, D.C.: National Academic Press.
Nei, M. and S. Kumar. 2000. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Oka, I. G. L. and D. Darmadja. 1996. History and development of Bali Cattle. Proceedings seminar on Bali cattle, a special spesies for the dry tropics, held by Indonesia Australia Eastern University Project (IAEUP), 21 September 1996. Udayana University Lodge, Bukit Jimbaran, Bali.
Pane, I. 1986. Pemuliabiakan Ternak Sapi. PT. Gramedia, Jakarta.
Payne, W.J.A. and D.H.L. Rollinson. 1973. Bali cattle. World Anim. Rev. 7: 13-21.
Payne, W.J.A. and J. Hodges. 1997. Tropical Cattle: Origin, Breeds and Breeding Policies. Blackwell Science.
Tambasco, D. D., C. C. P. Paz, M. Tambasco-Studart, A. P. Pereira, M. M. Alencar, A. R. Freitas, L. L. Countinho, I. U. Packer, and L. C. A. Regitano. 2003. Candidate genes for growth traits in beef cattle Bos Taurus x Bos Indicus. J. Anim. Bred. Genet. 120: 51-60.
Tegelstrom, H. 1992. Mitochondrial DNA in natural population: An improved routine for screening of genetic variation baed on sensitive silver staining. Electrophoresis. 7: 226-229