CHARACTERISTIC PERFORMANCES OF THE MAIN FOUR PIG FARMING SYSTEMS IN MANOKWARI, WEST PAPUA
AbstractThis research aimed to investigate opportunities for improving pig farming systems both in urban and rural areas of Manokwari, Papua Barat province-Indonesia. The research started by assessing the perspectives and perceptions of farmers in group meetings. A number of 386 pigs in cummulative was weighing and measured for life body weights and body condition scores. Papuan pig farmers were represented by Jayapura, Biak, Ambai and Ansus(Serui), Mee(Nabire), Arfak(Manokwari)and Ayamaru(Sorong)tribes. Non-Papuan pig farmers identified with ethnic groups of Batak, Toraja, Manado and Flores. The highest numbers of pigs kept were by semi-penned pig farmers, followed by pen and restrained pig farmers. About two hours per day was devoted to work in the restrained, semi-penned and pen pig keeping systems, while less than 1.5 hours per day was allocated by free-range pig farmers. In urban areas, feeding sources were kitchen and restaurant waste, and likewise crops and agriculture residues were in rural areas. Supplements and concentrates were used on a limited scale. Agricultural residues used were cassava, banana, taro, corn, grain and vegetable wastes. Litter sizes in the four pig farming systems were in average of 6 piglets/farrow/sow. Body condition scores were higher in pen pig keeping, i.e. 2.9 to 3, followed by semi-pen pigs, i.e. 2.1 to 3, free-range pigs, 2.1-2.8 and restrained pigs, i.e. 1.8 and 2.5 at different age levels. Economical and social quantitatives need further studies.
Amaufule, K. U., S. N. Ibe, S. F. Abasiekong and O. C. Onwudike. 2006. Response of weaner pigs to diets of different proportions and high levels of palm kernel meal and brewer dried grain in the humid tropics. Pakistan J. Nutr., 5(5): 461–466.
Anil, K. S., P. C. Saseendran, J. Mathew and M. Murugan. 2006. Effect of management systems on growth performance of two genetic groups of pigs. Tamilnadu J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 2(6): 229-233.
Berkmann R. 2006. A project in Papua New Guinea and Indonesian province of Papua is seeking to enhance a traditional village-based food production systems. Report ACIAR. Http://www.aciar.gov.au/system/files/node/649/Partners+Winter+Edition+2006+Sweet+Potato+%2526+pig+system.pdf. [Accessed on March 17th 2008].
Chiduwa, G., M. Chimonyo and T. E. Halimani. 2008. Herd dynamic and contribution of indigenous pigs to the livelihood of rural farmers in a semi arid area of Zimbabwe. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 40: 125-136.
Conroy, C. 2005. Participatory livestock research; a Guide ITDG Publishing. Warwickshire, UK.
Deka R., W. Thorpe, M. L. Lapar and A. Kumar. 2007. Assam’s pig sub sector: current status, constraints and opportunities. ILRI, New Delhi, India.
Dessie, T., and B. Ogle. 2001. Village poultry production systems in the central highland of Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Health Product., 33: 521-537.
Iyai, D. A., and T. Sraun. 2005. Studi karakteristik rumput dataran tinggi di lembah Kamu distrik Kamu Kabupaten Nabire Papua. Beccariana, 7(2): 1-8.
Iyai, D. A. 2008. Innovation possibilities in pig keeping systems in Manokwari, West Papua. Thesis. Wageningen University. The Netherlands.
Kagira, J. M., W. Paul, N. Kanyari, I. Maingi, S. M. Githigia, J.C. Ng’ang’a, and J. W. Karuga. 2010. Characteristic of the smallholder free range pig production systems in Western Kenya. Trop. Anim. Health Product., 42: 865-873.
Kanis, E., K. H. De Greef, A. Hiemstra and J. A. M. van Arendonk. 2008. Breeding for societally important traits in pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 83: 948-957.
Kumaresan, A., K. M. Bujarbaruah, K. A. Pathak, B. Chhetri, S. K. Das, A. Das and S. K. Ahmed. 2007. Performance of pigs reared under traditional tribal low input production system and chemical composition of non-conventional tropical plants used as pig feed. Livestock Sci., 107: 294-298.
Kunavongkrit, A. and T. W. Heard. 2000. Pig reproduction in South East Asia. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 60: 527-533.
Lekule, F. P. and N. C. Kyvsgaard. 2003. Improving pig husbandry in tropical resource-poor communities and its potential to reduce risk of porcine cysticercosis. Review article. Acta Tropica, 87: 111-117.
Lemke U., B. Kaufmann, L. T. Thuy, K. Emrich and A. V. Zarate, 2006. Evaluation of smallholder pig production systems in North Vietnam: pig production management and pig performances. Livestock sci., 105: 229-243.
Lemke, U. and A. V. Zarate. 2008. Dynamics and developmental trends of smallholder pig production systems in North Vietnam. Agricultural Systems. 96: 207-223.
Lemke, U., M. Margenthaler, R. Roßler, L. T. T. Huyen, P. Herold, B. Kaufmann and A. V. Zárate. 2008. Pig production in Vietnam-a review. CAB reviews: perspective in agriculture, veterinary science, nutrition and natural resources. Vol. 3, No. 023.
Muys, D. and G. Westenbrink. 1998. Pig keeping in the tropics. Agrodok-Series No.1. Agromisa. Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Nakai, S. 2008. Reproductive performance analysis of native pig smallholders in the hillside of Northern Thailand. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 40: 561-566.
Oliver W. L. R., I. L. Brisbin, Jr. and S. Takahashi. 1993. The Eurasian wild pigs, Sus scrofa. Chapter 5.2. Pigs, peccaries and hippo status survey and action plan. Http://www. iucn.org/pphsg/APchap5-2.html. [Accessed March 13th 2008].
Ott, R. L. and M. Longnecker. 2001. An introduction to statistical methods and data analysis. 5th Edition. Texas A & M University. Wadsworht Group, USA.
Pattiselanno, F. 2004a. Babi, hewan ternak penggembur tanah. Majalah Pertanian Berkelanjutan. Salam, No. 06: 14.
Pattiselanno, F. 2004b. Preliminary study on the traditional pig raising by local community in the upland Kebar, West Papua, Suiform Soundings PPHSG Newsletter, Vol. 4(1): 19-20.
Pattiselanno, F. and D. A. Iyai. 2005. Peternakan babi di Manokwari; mempertahankan tradisi dan meningkatkan taraf hidup. Salam, No.13.
Perkins R. 2002. Priorities for pigs research in Southeast Asia and the Pacific to 2010. ACIAR Working Paper No. 53. March 2002. Australian Center for International Agriculture Research. Canberra, Australia.
Peters, J. 2001. Local human-sweet potato-pig systems: characterization and research in Irian Jaya, Indonesia with limited reference to Papua New Guinea. A 2nd literature review."Poverty Alleviation and Food Security through improving the Sweetpotatoes-Pig Systems in Indonesia and Vietnam"International Potato Center (CIP).
Phookan, A., S. Laskar, A. Aziz and R. N. Goswami. 2006. Reproductive performance of indigenous pigs of the Brahmaputra valley of Assam. Tamilnadu J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 2(4): 121-125.
Randa, S.Y. 1994. Performance of indigenous pigs of upland and lowland Irian Jaya. MSc Thesis. Department of Animal Science. Los Baños, The Philippines.
Roessler, R., A. G. Drucker, R. Scarpa, A. Markemann, U. Lemke, Le T. Thuy, and A. V. Zarate. 2008. Using choice experiments to assess smallholder farmers’ preferences for pig breeding traits in different production systems in North-West Vietnam. Ecological Economics, 66: 184-192.
Ropa, M. 2001. Sistem pemberian pakan pada usaha peternakan babi rakyat di Kecamatan Manokwari. Research report. UniversitasCenderawasih, Manokwari-Papua.
Simanungkalit, D. 2001. Performance reproduksi ternak babi (Sus sp.) di Kecamatan Kebar kabupaten Manokwari. Pig raising system in Kebar valley at Manokwari regency. Research report. Universitas Cenderawasih, Manokwari-Papua.
SPSS. 2006. SPSS 15.0 for Windows.
Tra, H. T. H. 2003. Assessing inputs in pig production with special focus on feed resources and feeding management in demand and resource driven production systems in Son La Province, Vietnam. Thesis. University of Hohenheim, Germany.
Wabacha, J. K., J. M. Maribei, C. M. Mulei, N. Kyule, K. H. Zessin and W. Oluoch-Kosura. 2004. Preventive veterinary medicine, 63: 197-210.
Warastuti, D. F. 2001. Analisis pendapatan usaha ternak babi di pesisir pantai kota Manokwari. Research report. Universitas Negeri Papua, Manokwari-Papua.