Regional Security in Africa The Dynamic and Challenges
Keywords:African Union, Regional Security, Peacekeeping, Conflicts
AbstractAbstract : This article examines the idea of how the African Union (AU) and its aspects of security agency in Africa including APSA in dealing with the issue of security. As it is the fact that many countries in this region have experienced conflicts either within state or intra states. The data says that about 64 percent of the nations in this continent had engaged in conflicts or wars in the last fifty years. Therefore, there is a notion mentioning that Africa should solve their problems through its regional security. On the other hand, there is an opposite argument saying that the AU should not be left alone because they have no sufficient resources, fund and peacekeepers to conduct their missions. Thus, this paper argues that partnership between the regional security in Africa and the international agency like the United Nation (UN), the European Union (EU) will be one of alternative solutions for African problems. This partnership can be seen from some missions such as the deployment of troops in Burundi in which it was funded by the UN, while the AU provided troops coming from South Africa, Ethiopia and Mozambique. Another partnership between the AU and an international agency can be looked at the mission in Darfur Sudan which was funded by the EU.Keywords: African Union, regional security, peacekeeping, conflicts
Bangura, Abdul Karim. 2010. International Actors and Côte d’Ivoire’s Political and Economic Crises. Mangala, Jack (ed). New Security Threats and Crises in Africa Regional and International Perspectives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Buzan, Barry and Wever, Ole. 2003. Regions and Powers, the structure of international security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cleaver, Gerry and May, Roy (1998). African perspectives: regional peacekeeping. In Furley,
Olever and May, Roy (ed). Peacekeeping in Africa. England: Ashgate.
Engel, Ulf. & Porto, J.Gomes. 2010. Africa’s New Peace and Security Architecture: Promoting Norms, Institutionalizing Solutions. In Engel, Ulf and Porto, J. Gomes (ed). ‘Africa’s New Peace and Security Architecture; Promoting Norms, Institutionalizing Solutions. UK: Ashgate.
Fawcett, Louise. 2013. Regional Security. In Willians, Paul.D.(ed). Security Studies an Introduction. London: Routledge.
Findlay, Trevor. 2002. The use of force in UN peace operation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Horace, Campbell. 2012. NATO’s failure in Libya: Lesson for Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: Africa Institute of South Africa.
Kuperman, Alan J. 2013. A Model Humanitarian Intervention? Reassessing NATO’s Libya Campaign..International Security, 38 (1): 105-136.
Makinda, Samuel.M and Okumu, F. Wafula. 2008. The African Union, challenges of globalisation, security and governance. New York: Routledge Global Institutions.
Malan, Mark. 2001. Toward more effective peace operation, learning from African “laboratory”? in Thankur, Ramesh and Schnabel, Albrecht (ed). United Nations peacekeeping operation, Ad Hoc missions Permanent engagement. New York: United Nations University Press.
Paul, Rogers. 2013, Mali, dynamic of war. Open Democracy 16 January 2013. Siradag, Abdurrahim. 2012. The Eu’s security policy towards Africa: Causes, rationales, and dynamics. Insight Turkey, 14 (4): 175-188.
Sturman, Kathryn and Hayatou, Aissatou. 2010. The Peace and Security Council of the African Union; from design to reality. In Engel, Ulf and Porto, J. Gomes (ed). ‘Africa’s New Peace and Security Architecture; Promoting Norms, Institutionalizing Solutions. UK: Ashgate.
Soderbaum, Fredrik and Hettne, Bjorn. 2010. Regional security in a global perspective. In Engel, Ulf and Porto, J. Gomes (ed). ‘Africa’s New Peace and Security Architecture; Promoting Norms, Institutionalizing Solutions. UK: Ashgate.
Soderbaum, Fredrik and Tavares, Rodrigo. 2009. Problematizing regional organisation in African security. African Security. 2 (2-3):69-81.
Tramond, Oliver and Seigneur, Philippe. 2013. Early lesson from France’s operation serval in Mali. Army, 63 (6): 40
Vines, Alex. 2013. A decade of African Peace and Security Architecture. International Affairs. 89 (1): 89-109.
Wagner, Cara Marie. 2013. Reconsidering peace in the Horn of Africa, the impact of increased cooperation and the African Peace and Security Architecture. African Security Review. 22 (2): 39-53.
Williams, Paul.D. 2011. War and conflict in Africa. Cambridge: Polity Yorke, Edmund. 2001. Regional initiatives and Non-UN forms of intervention in Sub Saharan Africa. In Gordon, D.S and Toase, F.H. Aspect of peacekeeping. London: Frank Cass.
Zunes, Stephen. 2013. The west’s contribution to Mali’s tragedy. National Catholic Reporter, 49 (9): 24.