Factors Affecting Participation level on extension of dairy farmer in Enrekang Regency


  • S. Baba
  • . Isbandi
  • T. Mardikanto
  • . Waridin


Farmers’ participation in agricultural extension can improve the relevancy between extension services and the farmer needs. There are many factors that may affect farmers’ participation in agricultural extension. The aim of this study was to understand characteristic influence and perception of farmers onto extension towards level of farmer participation in agricultural extension. Method applied was non experimental design survey with structural equation model analysis and analysed using Lisrel 8,3 application. The number samples were which were obtained from two areas, 103 that divided by two area, central area 57 samples and non central area 46 samples. Exogenous variable was farmers’ characteristics and endogenous variable were farmers’ perception and level of farmers’ participation in agricultural extension. The analysis of structural model indicated that farmers’ characteristics negatively correlated with farmers’ perception to agricultural extension in which the higher levels of age, cosmopolite, and formal education. Similarly, farmers’characteristics negatively affected either directly or indrectly farmer participation, meaning the the higher levels of age, formal education, and cosmopolite the lower participation level on the extension. Effects of perception on participation was significantly negative, indicating that the higher perception the higher participation in the extension.  Quality of extension services e.g. extension materials, method used, and capacity of extension officers must be improved. Current extension services can only meet the needs of young farmers. The more complex the farmers’ needs the more unlikely the extension to meet famers’ needs.


Anggraeni, L. 2009. Factors influencing participation and credit constraints of a financial self-help group in remote rural area: The case of ROSCA and ASCRA in Kemang Village West Java. Journal of Applied Sciences, 1: 1-11.

Atmis, E., H.B. Gunsen, B.B. Lise, and W. Lise. 2009. Factors affecting forest cooperative’s participation in forestry in Turkey. Forest Policy and Economics, 11: 102-108.

Baba, S. 2007. Kontribusi usaha ternak sapi perah terhadap pendapatan peternak sapi perah di Kecamatan Cendana Kabupaten Enrekang. Jurnal Vegeta, Vol. 1 No. 1.

Baba, S. 2008. Analisis tingkat adopsi usaha ternak sapi perah di Kabupaten Enrekang. Jurnal Vegeta, Vol. 2 No. 4

Blackstock, K.I., J. Ingram, R. Burton, K.M. Brown, and B. Slee. 2010. Understanding and influencing behaviour change by farmers to improve water quality. Science of the Total Environment, 408: 5631-5638.

Budhi, G.S. 2006. Factors influencing payment of irrigation service fees. Makara, Sosial Humaniora, Vol. 10 No.1: 8-14.

Chandran, K. M. and G. Chackacherry. 2004. Factors influencing farmer participation in irrigation management. Short Communication. Journal of Trop. Agriculture, 42(1-2): 77-79.

Christensen, T., A.B. Pedersen, H.O. Nielsen, M.R. Morbak, B. Hasler, and S. Denver. 2011. Determinants of farmers’ willingness to participate in subsidy schemes for pesticide - free buffer zones – a. Choice experiment study. Ecological Economics, In press.

Cohen, J.M. and N.T. Uphoff. 1980. Participation’s place in rural development: seeking clarity through specificity. World Development, Vol. 8: 213-235.

Coggan, A., S.M. Whitten and J. Bennet. 2010. Influences of transaction costs in environmental policy. Ecological Economics, 69: 1777-1784.

Damihartini, R.S. dan A. Jahi. 2005. Hubungan karakteristik petani dengan kompetensi agribisnis pada usahatani sayuran di Kabupaten Kediri Jawa Timur. Jurnal Penyuluhan, Vol. 1 No. 1: 41-48.

Dolisca, F., D.R. Carter, J.M. McDaniel, D.A. Shannon, and C. M. Jolly. 2006. Factors influencing farmer’s participation in forestry management programs: A Case study from Haiti. Forest Ecology and Management, 236: 324-331.

Faham, E., S.M. Hosseini, and A.K. Darvish. 2008. Analysis of factors influencing rural people’s participation in national action plan for sustainable management of land and water resources in Hable-Rud Basin, Iran. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences,3(2): 457-461.

Falconer, K. 2000. Farm-level constraints on agri-environmental scheme participation: a transactional perspective. Journal of Rural Study, 16: 379-394.

Ife, J. dan F. Tesoriero. 2008. Community Development: Alternatif Pengembangan Masyarakat di Era Globalisasi. Diterjemahkan dari Community-Based Alternatives in an Angel of Globalisation oleh S.

Manullang, N. Yakin, M Nursahid. Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta.

Knowles, M. 1996. The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species. Gulf Publishing, Houston Texas, USA.

Mardikanto, T. 2009. Sistem Penyuluhan Pertanian. UNS Press, Surakarta.

Ngoc Chi, T.T., P.V. Liem, and T. Pharis. 2007. Farmers participation in rice variety selection. Journal of Omonrice, 15: 159-163.

Norland, E.V.T. 1992. Why Adult Participate? Journal of Extension March 1992. Available online at www.joe.org/1992fall/a2.html. (24 Desember 2009).

Qiao, G., L. Zhao, and K.K. Klein. 2009. Water user associations in inner Mongolia: Factors that influence farmers to join. Agricultural Water Management, 96: 822-830.

Skilbeck, M. 2006. Participation in Learning: Why, What, Where and How Do People Learn?. In Lifelong Learning, Participation and Equity, Eds. J. Chapman, P. Chartwright, and E.J. McGilp.

Sugiyono. 2008. Metode Penelitian Pendidikan (Pendekatan Kuantitatif, Kualitatif dan R&D). ALFABETA, Bandung.

Van Den Ban, A.W. dan H.S. Hawkins. 1999. Penyuluhan Pertanian. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta.

Walters, B.B., A. Cadelina, A. Cardano and E. Visitacion. 1999. Community history and rural development: Why some farmers participate more readily than others. Agricultural Systems, 59: 193-214.

Wilson, G.A. 1997. Factor Influencing Farmer Participation in the Environmentally Sensitive Areas Scheme. Journal of Environ. Manag., 50: 67-93.

Zbinden, S. and D.R. Lee. 2005. Paying for environmental services: An analysis of participation in Costa Rica’s PSA Program. Word Develop., 2: 255-272.