Characteristics of Edible Film Made from Dangke Whey and Agar Using different Percentage of Glicerol
AbstractComposites of whey dangke and agar can form edible film. The downside of this edible film are fragile, brittle and inflexible. Addition of glycerol, which is one of plasticizers, may improve characteristics of edible film to be more elastic, flexible and not easy to become fragile. The proper use of glycerol will affect the characteristics of the edible film. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the percentage of glycerol to the edible film characteristics, including yield, thickness, tensile strength, elongation, and color. This study was carried out according to completely randomized design consisted of three levels of glycerol concentrations, i.e. 25%, 35%, and 45% as treatments. Each treatment was repeated 5 times. The results study indicated that the thickness of edible film ranged from 0.024 mm to 0.035 mm, the yield varied from 7.26% to 7.87%, the tensile strength was between 13.60 and to 4.20 N, elongation was from 33.33 to 80%, and the color of L was 88.86 to 88.81, the value for “a” was between (-1.48) and (-0.94), and “b” was from 4.19 to 5.56. An increase in the percentage of glycerol decreased tensile strength but increased elongation. The addition of 45% glycerol caused “a” color change value (reduced green color). The addition of 35% glycerol caused changes in color values “b” (reduced yellow color), but the increase in the percentage of glycerol did not change the thickness and brightness values (L) of edible film. It was concluded that the higher the percentage of glycerol added in manufacturing edible film made from a composite whey dangke and agar decreased the tensile strength, increased the elongation and changed the color values of “a” and “b”, but did not change the thickness and rendemen of edible film.
Abugoch, L. E., Tapia, C., Villaman,M.C.,Yasdani-Pedram, M., Diaz-Dosque,M. 2011. Characterization of quinoa protein-chitosan blend edible films. Food Hydrocolloids, 25: 879-886.
Awwaly, K. U., A. Manab dan E. Wahyuni. 2010. Pembuatan edible film protein whey : kajian rasio protein dan gliserol terhadap sifat fisik dan kimia. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Hasil Ternak, 5(1): 45-56.
Ayranci, E., and S. Tunc. 2003. A method for the measurement of oxygen permeability and the development of edible films to reduce the rate of oxidative reactions in fresh. Food Chem., 80: 423-431.
Bae,H.J., S. C. Dong, S. W. Williams, J. P. Hyun. 2008. Film and pharmaceutical hard capsule formation properties of mungbean, waterchestnut, and sweet potato starches. Food Chemistry, 106: 96-105.
Bergo, P., and P. J. A. Sobral. 2007. Effect of plasticizer of phsycal properties of pigskin gelatin films. 21: 1285-1289.
Bourtoom, T., M. S. Chinnan, P. Jantawat, R. Sanguandeekul. 2006. Effect of select parameters on the properties of edible film from water-soluble protein in surimi wash-water. LWT,39,405-418.
Bourtoom, T. 2008a. Edible films and coatings: characteristics and properties. Int. Food Journal, 15(3): 237-248.
Bourtoom, T. 2008b. Plasticizer effect on the properties of biodegradable blend film from rice stach-chitosan. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Tech., 30: 149-165.
Chen, H. 1995. Fungtional properties and applications of edible films made of milk proteins. J. Dairy Sci., 78: 2563-2583.
Cho, S. Y., J. Park, H. P. Batt, R. L. Thomas. 2007. Edible film made from membrane processed soy protein concentrates. LWT,40: 418-423.
Di Pierro, P., B. Chico, R. Villalongan, L. Mariniello, A. Damiao, P. Masi. 2006. Chitosan-whey protein edible films produces in the presence of transglutaminase; analysis of their and barrier properties. Biomacromolecules, 7: 744-749.
Fatma, R. Malaka, Hajrawati, E. Murpiningrum, and M. Taufik. 2014. Effect of sorbitol concentration as plasticizer on the characteristics of edible film from whey dangke and agar composite. 4th SUIJI International Symposium and Seminar, Makassar, 13-15 Sepetember 2014.
Garcı´a, M. A., M. N. Martino, and N. E. Zaritzky 2000. Microstructural characterization of plasticized starch-based films. Starch-Stärke, 52(4): 118–124
Gaudin, S., D. Lourdin, D. Le Botlan, J. L. Ilari, and P. Colonna. 1999. Plasticization and mobility in starch-sorbitol films. J. Cereal Sci., 29(3): 273–284.
Gaspersz, V. 1991. Metode Perancangan Percobaan. Armico, Jakarta.
Gontard, N., S. Guilbert, and J. L. Cuq. 1993. Water and glycerol as plasticizer affect mechanical and water vapor barrier properties of an edible wheat gluten film. J. Food Sci., 58: 206 – 211.
Gounga, M.E., S-Y. Xu, dan Z. Wang. 2007. Whey protein isolate-based edible films as affected by protein concentration, glycerol ratio and pullulan addition in film formation. J. Food Eng., 83: 521- 530.
Guilbert, S., N. Gontard, and L. G. M. Gorris. 1996. Prolongation of the shelf-life of perishable food products using biodegradable films and coatings. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und-Technologie, 29 : 10–17.
Han, 2005. Innovations in Food Packaging. Department of Food Science University of Manitoba Wiminpeg, Manitoba Canada.
Jongjareonrak, A., S. Benjakul, W. Visessanguan, T. Prodpran and M. Tanaka. 2006. Characterization of edible film from skin gelatin of brownstrip red snapper and bigeye snapper. Food Hidrocol., 20: 492-501.
Lai, H. M., G. W. Padua and L. S. Wei. 1997. Properties and microsrucure of zein sheets plastisized with palmitic and stearic acids. Cereal Chem., 74(1): 83-90.
Mc.Hugh, T. H. and J. M. Krochta. 1994. Sorbitol-vs gliserol-plasticized whey protein edible film: Integrated oxygen permeability and tensile property evaluation. J. Agric. and Food Chem., 42(4): 841-845.
Myllarinen, P., R. Partanen, J. Seppala, and P. Forssell. 2002. Effect of glycerol on behaviour of amylose and amylopectin films. Carbohydrate Polymer, 50(4), 355 – 361.
Oses J., I. Fernandez-Pan, M. Mendoza, and J. I. Mate. 2009. Stability of mechanical properties of edible film based on whey protein isolate during storage at different relative humidty. J. Food Hydrocol., 23: 125-131.
Pavlath ,A. E., dan W. Orts. 2009. Edible Film and Coatings for Food Application. Chapter 1. Edible Films and Coating : Why, What and How?. Springer, New York.
Reed, T., A. H. Barret, J. Briggs, and M. Richardson. 1998. Texture and storage stability of processed beefsticks as affected by glycerol and moisture levels. J. Food. Sci. 63 : 84 – 87.
Renata C., dos Reis., I. A. Devilla, G. H. H. Oliveira, P. C. Corrêa, D. P. R. Ascheri, A. B. M. Souzay and A. C. O. Servulo. 2014. Mechanical properties, permeability and solubility of films composed of yam starch and glycerol. INVERCIENCIA, 39: 410-415.
Safitri, I. Thohari, dan Purwadi. 2014. Karakterisitik sifat fisiko-mekanis edible film komposit dengan rasio protein whey dan tepung porang (Amorphopallus oncophyllus) yang berbeda. http://fapet.ub.ac.id/wp-content/2014/03/karakteristik. (Diakses tanggal 27 Agustus 2014)
Setiani, W., T. Sudiarti, L. Rahmidar. 2013. Preparasi dan karakterisitk edible film dari poliblend pati sukun-kitosan. Valensi, 3(2): 100-109.
Sobral, P. J. A., F. C. Menegalli, M. D. Hubinger, M. A. Roques. 2001. Mechanical, water vapor barrier and thermal properties of gelatin based edible. J. Food Hydrocol., 15: 423-432.
Sothornvit, R, and J. M. Krochta. 2000. Water vapor permeability and solubility of film from hydrolyzed whey protein. J. Food Sci., 65(4): 700-703.
Srinivasa, P. C., M. N. Ramesh, and R. N. Tharanathan. 2007. Effect of plasticizers and fatty acids on mechanical and permeability characteristics of chitosan films. Food Hydrocol., 21: 1113-1122.
Taufik, M. 2011. Potensi Kulit Kaki Ayam Broiler sebagai Bahan Dasar Gelatin dan Edible Film. Disertasi, Program Pascasarjana, Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta.
Vanin, F. M., P. J. A. Sobral, F. C. Menegalli, R. A. Carvalho, A. M. Q. B. Habitante. 2005. Effects of plasticizers and their concentrations on thermal and fungtional properties of gelatin-based films. Food Hydrocol., 19: 899-907.
Wang, J., J. Sang, and F. Ren. 2010. Study of the physical properties of whey protein: sericin protein-blended edible films. Eur. Food Res. Tech., 231: 109-116.
Wittaya,T. 2013. Influence of type and concentration of plasticizer on properties of edible film from mung bean protein. KMITL Sci. Tech. J.,13: 51-58.
Villagomez-Zavala, D. L., C. Gomez-Corona, E. S. M. Matinez and J. P. P. Orozco. 2008. Comparative study the mechanical properties of edible films made from single and blended hydrophilic biopolymer matrices. Revista Mexicana de Ingenieria Quimica, 7(3): 263-273.
Yang, L., and A. T. Paulson. 2000. Effects lipids on mechanical and moisture barrier properties of edible gellan film. Food Res. Int., 33: 571-578.
Yoshida, C. M. P. and A. J. Antunes. 2004. Characteriztion of whey protein emulsion film. Brazilian J. Chem. Eng., 21: 247-252.