Analisis Perilaku dan Faktor Penyebab Perilaku Penggunaan Antibiotik Tanpa Resep di Surabaya

Dewi Paskalia Andi Djawaria, Adji Prayitno Setiadi, Eko Setiawan

Abstract


Perilaku dan faktor dominan penyebab penggunaan antibiotik tanpa resep di Surabaya belum diketahui secara pasti. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifkasi perilaku dan faktor yang paling mempengaruhi penggunaan antibiotik tanpa resep. Penelitian dengan desain potong lintang dilakukan pada masyarakat yang membeli antibiotik tanpa resep dokter di 90 apotek di Surabaya selama bulan Desember 2014-April 2015. Identifikasi perilaku dilakukan melalui 8 pertanyaan majemuk, dan identifikasi faktor dilakukan melalui dua metode statistik, yakni analisis deskriptif melalui perbandingan mean pertanyaan dalam masing-masing tema faktor, dan analisis faktor menggunakan orthogonal rotation (varimax). Total 267 responden terlibat dalam penelitian. Mayoritas masyarakat yang membeli antibiotik tanpa resep dokter berusia 21-30 tahun (36,33%), membeli dengan frekuensi 1 kali/bulan (45,70%), membeli untuk diri sendiri (56,55%), membeli segera setelah gejala muncul (33,70%), pembeli untuk indikasi pilek/flu (21,30%). Berdasarkan hasil uji statistik deskriptif ditemukan bahwa tema “halhal yang mendorong” merupakan faktor yang mempengaruhi penggunaan antibiotik tanpa resep di apotek. Pada metode analisis faktor, nilai cumulative percent total variance xplained adalah sebesar 48,03%, dengan nilai terbesar pada faktor pertama yakni sebesar 23,91%. Faktor paling mempengaruhi penggunaan antibiotik tanpa resep adalah kemudahan akses memperoleh antibiotik dan penghematan biaya. Hasil penelitian ini dapat digunakan untuk menentukan metode intervensi yang tepat untuk menanggulangi permasalahan penggunaan antibiotik tanpa resep di apotek. Dengan mempertimbangkan kompleksitas faktor penyebab perilaku tersebut, apoteker tidak seharusnya dituduh sebagai satu-satunya pihak penyebab penggunaan antibiotik tanpa resep.


Keywords


Antibiotik, apoteker komunitas, obat tanpa resep

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30597/mkmi.v14i4.5080

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