What are the Obstacles in Achieving Ideal Family Size in Reproductive Age Couples?

Dian Jayantari Putri K. Hedo, Nicholas Simarmata


The world situation with full of demands and limitations during the current pandemic can bring negative impacts on family. Family face burdens of daily needs for family life’s. Regarding to this condition, the ideal family size which is couple who has no more than two children, is an entity that needs to be considered to ensure the survivability of family. This study aimed to determine factors that related and predict the ideal family size for reproductive age couples in East Java. This study was quantitative study with cross-sectional approach. Data used in this study was secondary data from the Family Data Collection in 2021. Sampling technique was saturation sampling on reproductive age couples in 38 cities and regencies of East Java. Dependent variable was ideal family size. Independent variable was ideal age of marriage, participation in modern contraception, preferences for the ideal number of children, exposure to electronic media information, exposure to social media information, exposure to printed media information, and exposure to mass media information. Data analysis used multiple linear regression test. The study result stated variables that were related and had contribution in predicting ideal family size in reproductive age couples were ideal marriage age (p=0.001), participation in modern contraception (p=0.001), preference for ideal number of children (p=0.001), exposure to electronic media information (p=0.018), and exposure to mass media information (p=0.009). Based on these results, it is hoped that several intervention programs can be arranged by related institutions, targeted in the field that are in accordance with the study results.


1. Ryan BJ, Coppola D, Canyon D V., Brickhouse M, Swienton R. COVID-19 Community Stabilization and Sustainability Framework: An Integration of the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs and Social Determinants of Health. Disaster Med Public Health Prep [Internet]. 2020;14(5):623–9. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203164/

2. Lades LK, Laffan K, Daly M, Delaney L. Daily Emotional Well-being during The COVID-19 Pandemic. Br J Health Psychol [Internet]. 2020;25(4):902–11. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7361840/

3. Riany YE, Morawska A. Financial and Work Burden, Psychosocial Functioning, and Family Interactions During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia: Effects on Child Outcomes. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev [Internet]. 2021;1–12. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-021-01251-1

4. Browne DT, Wade M, May SS, Jenkins JM, Prime H. COVID-19 Disruption Gets Inside the Family: A Two-Month Multilevel Study of Family Stress During the Pandemic. Dev Psychol [Internet]. 2021;57(10):1681–92. Available from: https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2022-06056-010

5. Prime H, Wade M, Browne D. Risk and resilience in family well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. Am Psychol [Internet]. 2020;75(5):631–43. Available from: https://content.apa.org/fulltext/2020-34995-001.pdf

6. Nasution DAD, Erlina E, Muda I. Dampak Pandemi COVID-19 terhadap Perekonomian Indonesia. J Benefita [Internet]. 2020;5(2):212. Available from: http://ejournal.lldikti10.id/index.php/benefita/article/view/5313/1812

7. Feinberg ME, A. Mogle J, Lee JK, Tornello SL, Hostetler ML, Cifelli JA, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Parent, Child, and Family Functioning. Fam Process [Internet]. 2022;61(1):361–74. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/famp.12649

8. Kaye AD, Okeagu CN, Pham AD, Silva RA, Hurley JJ, Arron BL, et al. Economic impact of COVID-19 pandemic on healthcare facilities and systems: International perspectives. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol [Internet]. 2021;35(3):293–306. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2020.11.009

9. Dang HAH, Viet Nguyen C. Gender inequality during the COVID-19 pandemic: Income, expenditure, savings, and job loss. World Dev [Internet]. 2021;140:105296. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105296

10. Eliza Littleton B, Stanford J. An Avoidable Catastrophe: Pandemic Job Losses in Higher Education and their Consequences. Aust Inst [Internet]. 2020;(September):2–5. Available from: https://australiainstitute.org.au/report/an-avoidable-catastrophe/#:~:text=The new report%2C An
Avoidable,compared to year-earlier levels.
11. Suthar S, Das S, Nagpure A, Madhurantakam C, Tiwari SB, Gahlot P, et al. Epidemiology and diagnosis, environmental resources quality and socio-economic perspectives for COVID-19 pandemic. J Environ Manage [Internet]. 2021;280(November):111700. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111700

12. Moynihan R, Sanders S, Michaleff ZA, Scott AM, Clark J, To EJ, et al. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on utilisation of healthcare services: A systematic review. BMJ Open [Internet]. 2021;11(3):11–7. Available from: https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/11/3/e045343

13. Saadah, Nababan D, Silviana, Arwaty D, Sukmawati F, Shaleh K. Analysis of Burden Sharing Between the Government and Bank Indonesia to Meet State Budget Financing for Handling COVID-19 and National Economic Recovery Program. Rev Int Geogr Educ Online [Internet]. 2021;11(6):112–20. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/356748793_Analysis_of_Burden_Sharing_Between_the_Government_and_Bank_Indonesia_to_Meet_State_Budget_Financing_for_Handling_COVID-19_and_National_Economic_Recovery_Program

14. Satriyati E, Biroli A. Kembali ke Rempah: Upaya Rumah Tangga Petani di Bangkalan Guna Peningkatan Kesehatan dan Penanggulangan Kemiskinan selama Pandemi Covid-19. Pros Semin Nas Penanggulangan Kemiskin [Internet]. 2021;1(1):168–91. Available from: https://smeru.or.id/sites/default/files/events/ekna_satriyati_-_kembali_ke_rempah_0.pdf

15. Mahendradhata Y, Andayani NLPE, Hasri ET, Arifi MD, Siahaan RGM, Solikha DA, et al. The Capacity of the Indonesian Healthcare System to Respond to COVID-19. Front Public Heal [Internet]. 2021;9(July):1–9. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2021.649819/full

16. Adriyanto A, Maryanti, Pambudi KS. Impact of MSME Assistance Program by East Java Province to Resolve the Economic Impacts of Covid-19. Ilomata Int J Soc Sci ( IJSS ) [Internet]. 2021;2(4):296–307. Available from: https://www.ilomata.org/index.php/ijss/article/view/376

17. Martínez L, Short JR. The pandemic city: Urban issues in the time of covid-19. Sustainability [Internet]. 2021;13(6):1–10. Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/13/6/3295

18. BKKBN. Peringati Hari Vasektomi se-Dunia, Kepala BKKBN Populerkan Susuk KB Satu Batang Hingga Vasektomi [Internet]. Berita BKKBN. 2020 [cited 2022 May 13]. p. 21–2. Available from: https://www.bkkbn.go.id/berita-peringati-hari-vasektomi-se-dunia-kepala-bkkbn-populerkan-susuk-kb-satu-batang-hingga-vasektomi

19. Kurniawan R, Melaniani S. Hubungan Paritas, Penolong Persalinan dan Jarak Kehamilan dengan Angka Kematian Bayi di Jawa Timur. J Biometrika dan Kependud [Internet]. 2019;7(2):113. Available from: https://scholar.archive.org/work/hvyuzwq7rvgdzd4w7amk5ktctq/access/wayback/https://e-journal.unair.ac.id/JBK/article/download/8389/pdf

20. Sari DI, Wahyuni N, Sucipto CD, Indah DS. Hubungan pengetahuan, paritas, pekerjaan ibu dengan keteraturan kunjungan ibu hamil untuk ANC selama masa pandemi Covid-19. J Kesehat Prim [Internet]. 2021;6(1):22–31. Available from: http://jurnal.poltekeskupang.ac.id/index.php/jkp/article/view/530

21. BKKBN. 2021 Family Data Survey. Jakarta: Badan Kependudukan dan Keluarga Berencana Nasional; 2021.

22. Budiman E, Kundre R, Lolong J. Hubungan Tingkat Pendidikan, Pekerjaan, Status Ekonomi dengan Paritas di Puskesmas Bahu Manado. e J Keperawatan [Internet]. 2017;5(1):7. Available from: https://ejournal.unsrat.ac.id/index.php/jkp/article/view/14815

23. Thomson S. Achievement at school and socioeconomic background—an educational perspective. npj Sci Learn [Internet]. 2018;3(1). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41539-018-0022-0

24. De Vargas Nunes Coll C, Ewerling F, Hellwig F, De Barros AJD. Contraception in adolescence: The influence of parity and marital status on contraceptive use in 73 low-and middle-income countries. Reprod Health [Internet]. 2019;16(1):1–12. Available from: https://reproductive-health-journal.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12978-019-0686-9.pdf

25. Apriasih H, Danefi T. Faktor-Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Partisipasi Akseptor Kb Aktif terhadap Penggunaan Kontrasepsi Jangka Panjang di Desa Cigalontang Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Cigalontang Tahun 2018. J Stikes Respati [Internet]. 2019;2(3):1–18. Available from: http://www.ejurnal.stikesrespati-tsm.ac.id/index.php/bidkes/article/view/101/87

26. Islam J. Factors Influencing Family Size: A Critical Study on Khulna District of Bangladesh. Br J Arts Humanit [Internet]. 2020;2(4):73–81. Available from: https://universepg.com/public/storage/journal-pdf/Factors influencing family size_a critical study on Khulna district of Bangladesh.pdf

27. Santikasari S, Laksmini P. Hubungan Sumber Informasi dengan Pemakaian Kontrasepsi di Kelurahan Merak Tangerang. J Ilmu Kesehat Bhakti Husada [Internet]. 2019;10(1):74–87. Available from: https://ejournal.stikku.ac.id/index.php/stikku/article/view/87/70

28. Sitorus MA, Siregar PA. Pengaruh Frekuensi Media Dan Keterpaparan Informasi Tentang Kb Terhadap Persepsi Jumlah Anak Ideal: Analisis Data Sdki 2017. J Kesehat [Internet]. 2021;14(1):62. Available from: https://journal.uin-alauddin.ac.id/index.php/kesehatan/article/view/16929

29. Sitorus MA, Simarmata R, Siregar PA. Analisis Preferensi Jumlah Anak Ideal di Provinsi Sumatera Utara: Analisis Data Skunder SDKI 2017. Contag Sci Period J Public Heal Coast Heal [Internet]. 2020;2(2):87. Available from: http://jurnal.uinsu.ac.id/index.php/contagion/article/view/7989/3936

30. Arsyad SS, Nurhayati S. Determinan Fertilitas Di Indonesia. J Kependud Indones [Internet]. 2017;11(1):1. Available from: https://ejurnal.kependudukan.lipi.go.id/index.php/jki/article/download/65/96

31. Jatmiko YA, Wahyuni S. Determinan Fertilitas Di Indonesia Hasil Sdki 2017. Euclid [Internet]. 2019;6(1):95. Available from: http://jurnal.ugj.ac.id/index.php/Euclid/article/view/1516

32. Utomo SP, Aziz UK, Geografi J, Sosial FI, Malang UN. Mapping Effects Of Education Level, Income And Age Of Marriage On The Number Of Children Born Allive In Kotalama Village, Kedungkandang District. J Ikesma [Internet]. 2020;16(2):109–16. Available from: https://jurnal.unej.ac.id/index.php/IKESMA/article/view/17675/8685

33. Susanti R, Giyatri CD, AB I. Penerapan Metode Regresi Ridge dalam Mengatasi Multikolinieritas pada Tingkat Fertilitas Wanita Usia Subur. JI-KES (Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan) [Internet]. 2021;5(1):91–102. Available from: https://repository.unmul.ac.id/bitstream/handle/123456789/12894/214-723-1-PB.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

34. Mursyida R, Mutiara E, Asfriyati A. Faktor- Faktor yang Memengaruhi Jumlah Anak di Desa Pusong Kecamatan Banda Sakti Kota Lhokseumawe. J Healthc Technol Med. 2018;4(2):232-245. https://doi.org/10.33143/jhtm.v4i2.419

35. Ahmad A. Preferensi Fertilisasi Terhadap Jumlah Anak yang Telah Dimiliki oleh Wanita Usia Subur (WUS) Pengguna Kontrasepsi di Wilayah Kerja UPT Puskesmas Kasongan dan UPT Puskesmas Kasongan. [Skripsi]. Palangkaraya: Poltek- kes Kementerian Kesehatan Palangkaraya; 2021.


Dian Jayantari Putri K. Hedo
putri.k.hedo@gmail.com (Primary Contact)
Nicholas Simarmata
Author Biographies

Dian Jayantari Putri K. Hedo, National Board of Population and Family Planning/Badan Kependudukan dan Keluarga Berencana Nasional (BKKBN)

National Board of Population and Family Planning/Badan Kependudukan dan Keluarga Berencana Nasional (BKKBN), Indonesia

Nicholas Simarmata, Program Study of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University

Program Study of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Indonesia
K. Hedo, D. J. P., & Simarmata, N. (2022). What are the Obstacles in Achieving Ideal Family Size in Reproductive Age Couples?. Media Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia, 18(4), 132-139. https://doi.org/10.30597/mkmi.v18i4.20979

Article Details