Guideline for Preparing Manuscript

Types of paper 

  1. Original research papers. Research articles that have not been published previously may be submitted as regular papers/original research papers. The word limit is 8000 words (but not restricted), excluding Tables, Figures, and References.
  2. Review papers. Review papers exist for the expression of opinions and allow authors to submit material that may not be appropriate for original research articles but which contains ideas worthy of publication, which include a letter from the Editor or letter to the Editor
  3. Policy forum. The policy forum format encourages submissions from researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers. Researchers long engaged on a particular issue that has identified emerging trends or critical elements of an issue, practitioners noticing issues overlooked among the research community, or policy-makers that have particular insights into the design, application, and implementation of a policy are encouraged to submit through this format to shape research and policy agendas going forward. Envisioned as a shorter format that focuses on these emerging trends, policy forum submissions should target 1,500 - 3,000 words. Submissions will undergo a peer-review process.

    The suggested outline for submissions should initially focus on a brief introduction about the issue at hand, present the authors' overall reliability or authority on the topic, and present the relevance for contemporary debates on critical issues of environment-society relations going forward in Southeast Asia.
  4. Notes from the field. Research contexts in South-East Asia -- including geographical, linguistic, and cultural dimensions -- can be particularly challenging given the region's breadth and diversity. Notes from the field provide a format for researchers interested in sharing their fieldwork experiences and raising critical questions about data collection complexities. This format aims to exchange different experiences on fieldwork, encourage more rigorous discussions about the researcher's role and various approaches to collecting data, and raise essential discussions about ethical considerations. The suggested format is a 1,500 - 6,000 words reflective narrative in which ethical, methodological, empirical, and other problems and solutions are presented.   

    The suggested outline should begin by providing a brief introduction about the research, followed by a description of the research method(s), and focus on the fieldwork issue raised. 
  5. Methodological engagement. The boundaries between the different scientific disciplines have faded over the years. With the arrival of new technologies, there has been increasing innovation in approaching research in new ways for both communications and research applications. As a format, methodological engagement encourages submissions that provide insight and direction about creative ways of tackling complex research problems. In this format, we envision the cross-pollination of disciplines from social, political, ecological, spatial, economic, and others to trigger new debates and generate research ideas across a fraught research field with complexity. The format is open to creative interpretation, but we suggest guidelines of between 1,500 - 3,000 words. 

    The suggested outline should begin with a brief introduction about the research topic, the interwoven research traditions, methodological challenges, and the potential delivery of research outcomes.
  6. Special Section: Section that invites original research papers and article reviews for specific themes. A special section enables us to publish papers focusing on specific themes, often related to a "hot topic." 

    The Reports section consists of brief factual summaries of research and reports from institutions. Reports and Review Papers should comprise 500-5000 words.
  7. Book Reviews. Book reviews should comprise 800-2000 words on new books, software, and videos relevant to the scope of Forest and Society. 
  8. Conference Reports. Reports on significant conferences of particular interest to Forest and Society, approximately 1000-2000 words.
  9. Forthcoming meetings. Notices of forthcoming meetings for listing in the Calendar section are welcomed. Entries must be received at least three months before publication.

Guideline for Online Submission

An author should first register as Author and/or is offered as Reviewer through the following address:  

The Author should fulfill the form as detail as possible where the star marked form must be entered. After all form textbox was filled, the Author clicks on the “Register” button to proceed with the registration. Therefore, Author is brought to the online author submission interface where Author should click on “New Submission”. In the Start, a New Submission section, click on “Click Here’: to go to step one of the five-step submission processes.” The following are five steps in the online submission process:

  1. Step 1 - Starting the Submission: Select the appropriate journal section, i.e., Original Research Articles or Review Articles. Thus, Author must check-mark on the submission checklists.
  2. Step 2 – Uploading the Submission: To upload a manuscript to this journal, click Browse on the Upload submission file item and choose the manuscript document file to be submitted, then click the Upload button. 
  3. Step 3 – Entering Submission’s Metadata: In this step, detailed authors' metadata should be entered, including the marked corresponding author. After that, the manuscript title and abstract must be uploaded by copying the text and paste it into the textbox, including keywords.
  4. Step 4 – Uploading Supplementary Files: Supplementary files could be uploaded, including Covering/Submission Letter, additional data (if needed). Therefore, click on the Browse button, choose the files, and then click on the Upload button.
  5. Step 5 – Confirming the Submission: The author should make a final check of the uploaded manuscript documents in this step. To submit the manuscript to Forest and Society, click the Finish Submission button after the documents are correct. The corresponding Author or the principal contact will receive an acknowledgment by email and will be able to view the submission’s progress through the editorial process by logging in to the journal web address site. 

By submitting your article to Forest and Society, you and all co-authors of your submission agree to the terms of this license. You do not need to fill out a copyright form for confirmation. Please see the Copyright Notice.

After this submission, the Authors who submit the manuscript will get a confirmation email about the submission. Therefore, Authors can track their submission status at any time by logging in to the online submission interface. Submission tracking includes the status of the manuscript review and editorial process.

Please note that the Editor will determine the category of each article submission

Formatting requirements 

The manuscript should be typed using word processors (preferably Microsoft Word) software. Please keep the word accounts as short as possible. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible as well.

There are no strict formatting requirements, but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.

If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.

Title: This is your opportunity to attract the reader’s attention. Remember that readers are the potential authors who will cite your article. Identify the central issue of the paper. Begin with the subject of the paper. The title should be accurate, unambiguous, specific, and complete. Do not contain infrequently-used abbreviations.


Article structure

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text.' Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its separate line. 

Authors Name and Affiliations
Write Author(s) names without title and professional positions such as Prof, Dr, Production Manager, etc. Do not abbreviate your last/family name. Always give your First and Last names. If you have a one-word name such as Isehu, write Isehu Isehu. Write a clear affiliation of all Authors. Affiliation includes department/unit, (faculty), name of university, address, country. Please indicate Corresponding Author (include email address) behind the name.

Author addresses are superscripted by numerals and centered over both columns of manuscripts.

The abstract should be clear, concise, and descriptive. This abstract should provide a brief introduction to the paper's problem, followed by a statement regarding the methodology and a summary of results. The abstract should end with a comment on the significance of the results or a brief conclusion. Abstracts are preferably not more than 300 words.

A maximum of 8 keywords separated by a semicolon (;), crucial to the papers' appropriate indexing, are to be given. e.g: policy; ecology conservation; economics; interest.

The introduction part (recommended length: 500-1000 words) gives the reader an enticing glimpse of what is to come. It must grab the reader’s attention by stimulating attention, interest, desire, and action. In other words, the introduction must effectively “sell” the manuscript.

The introduction generally consists of: a broad statement about the theme or topic of the study; summary of available works of literature and cites the most important studies that are relevant to the current research; a statement about controversies, gaps, inconsistencies in the literature that the current study will address; a statement about problems/questions to be addressed in the study or objectives of the study. You can also state at the end of the introduction outline of the rest of the article's structure.

Materials and Methods
The materials and methods section describes materials used in research and steps followed in the study's execution. A brief justification for the method used is also stated so the readers can evaluate the appropriateness of the method, reliability, and validity of the results.

Results should be clear and concise. The results should summarize (scientific) findings rather than provide data in great detail. Please highlight differences between your results or findings and the previous publications by other researchers.

The discussion should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. Separation or combination of the Results and Discussion section is accepted. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

The discussion section is the most crucial section of your article. Here you get the chance to sell your data. Make the discussion corresponding to the results, but do not reiterate the results. Often should begin with a summary of the leading scientific findings (not experimental results). The following components should be covered in the discussion: How do your results relate to the original question or objectives outlined in the Introduction section (what)? Do you provide an interpretation scientifically for each of your results or findings presented (why)? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported (what else)? Or are there any differences? 

Tables and Figures
All figures and tables should be cited in the main text as Figure 1, Table 1, etc.

Tables are sequentially numbered with the table title and number above the table. Tables should be centered in the column OR on the page. Tables should be followed by a line space. Elements of a table should be single-spaced; however, double spacing can show groupings of data or separate parts within the table. Tables are referred to in the text by the table number. e.g., Table 1. Do not show a vertical line in the table. There is only a horizontal line that should be shown within the table.

Figures are sequentially numbered, commencing at 1 with the figure title and number below the figure, as shown in Figure 1. Detailed recommendations for figures are as follows:

Ensure that figures are clear and legible with typed letterings.

Black & white or colored figures are allowed.

Hard copy illustrations should, preferably, be scanned and included in the electronic version of the submission in an appropriate format. 

Equations should be numbered serially within parentheses, as shown in Equation (1). The Equation should be prepared using MS Equation Editor (not in image format). The equation number is to be placed at the extreme right side.            

Units, Abbreviations, and Symbols
Metric units are preferred. Define abbreviations and symbols for the first time as they are introduced in the text.

Conclusions should answer the objectives of the research. Tells how your work advances the field from the present state of knowledge. Without clear Conclusions, reviewers and readers will find it difficult to judge the work and whether or not it merits publication in the journal. Do not repeat the Abstract or just list experimental results. Provide a clear scientific justification for your work, and indicate possible applications and extensions. You should also suggest future works and/or policy implications.

Author Contributions: For research articles with several authors, a short paragraph specifying their individual contributions could be provided. The following statements should be used “X.X. and Y.Y. conceived and designed the experiments; X.X. performed the experiments; X.X. and Y.Y. analyzed the data; W.W. contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools; Y.Y. wrote the paper.” Authorship must be limited to those who have contributed substantially to work reported.

Conflicts of Interest: Declare conflicts of interest or state “The authors declare no conflict of interest." Authors must identify and declare any personal circumstances or interests that may be perceived as inappropriately influencing the representation or interpretation of reported research results. Any role of the funding sponsors in the study's design; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results must be declared in this section. If there is no role, please state, “The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.”

Acknowledgment: Recognize those who helped in the research, especially funding supporters of your research. Include individuals who have assisted you in your study: Advisors, Financial supporters, or may other supporters, i.e., Proofreaders, Typists, and Suppliers who may have given materials. 

Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

The appendix is an optional section that can contain details and data supplemental to the main text. For example, explanations of experimental details that would disrupt the flow of the main text, but nonetheless remain crucial to understanding and reproducing the research shown; figures of replicates for experiments of which representative data is shown in the main text can be added here if brief, or as Supplementary data. Mathematical proofs of results not central to the paper can be added as an appendix.

All appendix sections must be cited in the main text. In the appendixes, Figures, Tables, etc., should be labeled starting with ‘A’, e.g., Figure A1, Figure A2, etc.

There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission, but we encourage using APA citation output. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter, and the pagination must be present.

This weblink or, that explaining APA citation could be useful. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The journal's reference style will be applied to the accepted article by the Editor at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at the proof stage for the Author to correct. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text. Please use Reference Manager Applications like EndNote, Mendeley, Zotero, etc. Use other published articles in the same journal as models. All publications cited in the text should be included as a list of references. References are listed alphabetically. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Please see the example below for commonly used references.

  • Journal Article
    Lastname, Firstname. (Published year). The Title of Article: Capitalizes Every First Word. Journal Name: Capitalizes Every First Word and Using Italic Style, Volume(Issue), first page-last page.
  • Book
    Lastname, Firstname. (Published year). The Title of Book: Capitalizes Every First Word and Using Italic Style. Publisher.
  • Book chapter
    Lastname, Firstname. (Published year). The Title of Book Chapter: Capitalizes Every First Word. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), The Title of Book: Capitalizes Every First Word and Using Italic Style (first page-last page of the chapter). Publisher.
  • Dissertation/Thesis
    • Published
      Lastname, Firstname. (Published year). The Title of Dissertation/Thesis: Capitalizes Every First Word and Using Italic Style. (Publication ID/number) [Doctoral dissertation/Master thesis, University Name]. Publisher.
    • Unpublished
      Lastname, Firstname. (Published year). The Title of Dissertation/Thesis: Capitalizes Every First Word and Using Italic Style. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation/Master Thesis]. University Name.
  • Conference Proceeding
    Lastname, Firstname. (Published year). The Title of Article: Capitalizes Every First Word. Conference Proceeding Name: Capitalizes Every First Word and Using Italic Style, Volume(Issue), first page-last page.
  • Working Paper
    Lastname, Firstname. (Published year). The Title of Paper: Capitalizes Every First Word and Using Italic Style. Paper Name, No. XX. Publisher. Available at
  • Government Agency or Organization Report
    Name of Agency or Organization. (Published year). The Title of Report: Capitalizes Every First Word and Using Italic Style. Publisher/Name of Agency or Organization. Retrieved from
  • Website/Webpage
    Lastname, Firstname. (Published date). The Title of Paper: Capitalizes Every First Word and Using Italic Style. Webpage Name.
  • News Webpage
    Lastname, Firstname. (Published date). The Title of Paper: Capitalizes Every First Word and Using Italic Style. News Name.

To simply follow our journal's guidelines, please download this TEMPLATE, and replace the content with your own material. 

Forest and Society have a policy of screening for plagiarism. We use Anti-Plagiarism Software Turnitin to check the authenticity of the article