Forest and Society have a policy of screening for plagiarism. We use Anti-Plagiarism Software Turnitin to check the authenticity article

Guideline for Preparing Manuscript

Types of paper

1. Original research papers.Research articles which have not been published previously, except in a preliminary form, may be submitted as regular papers/original research papers. The word limit is 8000 words (but not restricted), excluding Tables, Figures and Reference.

2. Review papers.Review papers exists for the expression of opinions, and allows authors to submit material which may not be appropriate for original research articles but which contains ideas worthy of publication, which include letter from editor or letter to editor

3. Policy forum.The policy forum format encourages submissions from researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers. Researchers long engaged on a particular issue that have identified emerging trends or key elements of an issue, practitioners noticing issues overlooked among the research community, or policymakers that have particular insights into the design, application, and implementation of a policy, are encouraged to submit through this format to shape research and policy agendas going forward. Envisioned as a shorter format that focuses on these emerging trends, policy forum submissions should target 1,500 - 3,000 words. Submissions will undergo a peer review process. The suggested outline for submissions should initially focus on a brief introduction about the issue at hand, present the overall reliability of the authors knowledge or authority on the topic, and present the relevance for contemporary debates on key issues of  environment-society relations going forward in Southeast Asia.

4. Notes from the field.Research contexts in South-East Asia -- including geographical, linguistic and cultural dimensions -- can be particularly challenging given the breadth and diversity across the region. Notes from the field provides a format for researchers that are interested in sharing their field work experiences and raising key questions about the complexities of data collection. The goal of this format is to exchange different experiences on field work, to encourage more rigorous discussions about the role of the researcher and various approaches to collecting data, as well as raising important discussions about ethical considerations. The suggested format is a 1,500 - 6,000 words reflective narrative in which ethical, methodological, empirical and other problems and solutions are presented. The suggested outline should begin by providing a brief introduction about the research, followed by a description of the research method(s), and focuses the content about the fieldwork issue that is being raised. 

5. Methodological engagement.The boundaries between the different scientific disciplines have faded over the years. With the arrival of new technologies, for both communications and research applications, there have been increasing innovation on approaching research in new ways. Methodological engagement, as a format, encourages submissions that provide insight and direction about creative ways to tackling complex research problems. In this format we envision the cross-pollination of disciplines from social, political, ecological, spatial, economic, and others to trigger new debates and generate research ideas across a research field that is fraught with complexity. The format is open to creative interpretation but we suggest guidelines of between 1,500 - 5,000 words. The suggested outline should begin with a brief introduction about the research topic, the research traditions that are interwoven, and focuses on the methodological challenges, and the potential delivery of research outcomes.

6. Special Section:Section that invites original research papers and article reviews for specific themes.  A special section enables us to publish papers focusing on specific themes, often related to a “hot topic”

6. Reports.The Reports section consists of brief factual summaries of research and reports from institutions. Reports and Review Papers should comprise 500-5000 words.

7. Conference Reports.Reports on major conferences of particular interest to Forest and Society, approximately 1000-2000 words

8. Forthcoming meetings. Notices of forthcoming meetings for listing in the Calendar section are welcomed. Entries must be received at least three months before publication.

9. Book Reviews. Forest and Society does not require any rigid format for conducting a book review. Reviewers should feel at liberty to approach the review in their own style with the broader aim of contextualizing the work in the literature or policy developments at the time of publication. We welcome reviews about academic books, monographs or edited volumes, policy publications, or reviews on past works that are relevant for re-engaging in theory, policy, and practice. We are also not limited to traditional books and these guidelines can also apply to film, art, cultural works, or other multi-media engagement.

The remainder of this document sets out some guidelines for potential book reviewers to follow in conducting a review. Word count: We prefer formats between 800-1500 words. The review should also seek out to cover the questions listed below:

  • How is the author’s background and work situated in the broader field of study?
  • What is the central argument of the book and how is the work timely in its theoretical or empirical engagement? Does it deliver and does it leave anything out?
  • What was the methodology and factual basis of the study? Were there factual errors and oversights or faulty assumptions? We are especially interested in a close review of the sources, extent, and depth of the research.
  • Who is the audience of the book?
  • How is the structure, prose, length, and other aspects of the books accessibility and readability? Is it enjoyable?
  • Are there unique features to the book in terms of illustrations, indexing, bibliographic or other aspects?
  • Does the title capture the book’s major argument?

If you would like to follow a general outline, we propose approaching the review under the following headings / sub-sections:

    • Introduction: brief description of the subject, aim, and scope. Make sure to outline the central thesis of the book and the key arguments
    • Situate within the broader literature both theoretically and empirically. Has this book filled a key gap and how?
    • Review the components of the arguments and review the strengths and weaknesses of each of the arguments. Are there key features of the book that were particularly memorable?
    • What new questions does the book raise?

Guideline for Online Submission

Author should first register as Author and/or is offered as Reviewer through the following address: 

Author should fulfil the form as detail as possible where the star marked form must be entered. After all form textbox was filled, Author clicks on “Register” button to proceed the registration. Therefore, Author is brought to online author submission interface where Author should click on “New Submission”. In the Start a New Submission section, click on “’Click Here’: to go to step one of the five-step submission process”. The following are five steps in online submission process:

  1. Step 1 - Starting the Submission: Select the appropriate section of journal, i.e. Original Research Articles or Review Articles. Thus, author must check-mark on the submission checklists.
  2. Step 2 – Uploading the Submission: To upload a manuscript to this journal, click Browse on the Upload submission file item and choose the manuscript document file to be submitted, then click Upload button. 
  3. Step 3 – Entering Submission’s Metadata: In this step, detail authors metadata should be entered including marked corresponding author. After that, manuscript title and abstract must be uploaded by copying the text and paste in the textbox including keywords.
  4. Step 4 – Uploading Supplementary Files: Supplementary file could be uploaded including Covering/Submission Letter, additional data (if needed). Therefore, click on Browse button, choose the files, and then click on Upload button.
  5. Step 5 – Confirming the Submission:  Author should final check the uploaded manuscript documents in this step. To submit the manuscript to Forest and Society, click Finish Submission button after the documents is true. The corresponding author or the principal contact will receive an acknowledgment by email and will be able to view the submission’s progress through the editorial process by logging in to the journal web address site. 

By submitting your article to Forest and Society, you and all co-authors of your submission agree to the terms of this license. You do not need to fill out a copyright form for confirmation. Please see the Copyright Notice .

After this submission, Authors who submit the manuscript will get a confirmation email about the submission. Therefore, Authors are able to track their submission status at anytime by logging in to the online submission interface. The submission tracking includes status of manuscript review and editorial process.

Formatting requirements 

Manuscript should be typed using word processors (preferably Microsoft Word) software. Please keep the words accounts as short as possible. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible as well.

There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.

If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.

Title :  This is your opportunity to attract the reader’s attention. Remember that readers are the potential authors who will cite your article. Identify the main issue of the paper. Begin with the subject of the paper. The title should be accurate, unambiguous, specific, and complete. Do not contain infrequently-used abbreviations. 

Article structure

Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. 

Authors Name and Affiliations

Write Author(s) names without title and professional positions such as Prof, Dr, Production Manager, etc. Do not abbreviate your last/family name. Always give your First and Last names. If you have one word name such as Isehu, write Isehu Isehu. Write clear affiliation of all Authors. Affiliation includes: name of department/unit, (faculty), name of university, address, country. Please indicate Corresponding Author (include email address) behind the name.

Author addresses are superscripted by numerals and centered over both columns of manuscripts.


The abstract should be clear, concise, and descriptive. This abstract should provide a brief introduction to the problem, objective of paper, followed by a statement regarding the methodology and a brief summary of results. The abstract should end with a comment on the significance of the results or a brief conclusion. Abstracts are preferably not more than 300 words.


Maximum of 8 keywords separated by semicolon (;), crucial to the appropriate indexing of the papers, are to be given. e.g: policy; ecology conservation; economics; interest.


The introduction part (recommended length: 500-1000 words) gives the reader and enticing glimpse of what is to come. It must grab teh reader’s attention by stimulating attention, interest, desire and action. In other words, the introduction must effectively “sell” the manuscript.

The introduction generally consists of: a broad statement about theme or topic of the study; summary of available literatures and cites the most important studies that are relevant to the current research; statement about controversies, gaps, inconsistencies in the literature that the current study will address; statement about problems/questions to be addressed in the study or objectives of the study. You can also state at the end of introduction outline of the structure of the rest of the article.

Materials and Methods 

Materials and methods section describes materials used in research and steps followed in the execution of the study. A brief justification for the method used is also stated so the readers can evaluate the appropriateness of the method, reliability and validity of the results.

Results  (Separation or combination of Results and Discussion section is accepted)

Results should be clear and concise. The results should summarize (scientific) findings rather than providing data in great detail. Please highlight differences between your results or findings and the previous publications by other researchers.

The discussion should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them.Separation or combination of Results and Discussion section is accepted. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

In discussion, it is the most important section of your article. Here you get the chance to sell your data. Make the discussion corresponding to the results, but do not reiterate the results. Often should begin with a brief summary of the main scientific findings (not experimental results). The following components should be covered in discussion: How do your results relate to the original question or objectives outlined in the Introduction section (what)? Do you provide interpretation scientifically for each of your results or findings presented (why)? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported (what else)? Or are there any differences? 

Tables and Figures

All figures and tables should be cited in the main text as Figure 1, Table 1, etc.

Tables are sequentially numbered with the table title and number above the table. Tables should be centered in the column OR on the page. Tables should be followed by a line space. Elements of a table should be single-spaced, however double spacing can be used to show groupings of data or to separate parts within the table. Tables are referred in the text by the table number. eg: Table 1. Do not show vertical line in the table. There is only horizontal line should be shown within the table.

Figures are sequentially numbered commencing at 1 with the figure title and number below the figure as shown in Figure 1. Detailed recommendations for figures are as follows:

Ensure that figures are clear and legible with typed letterings.

Black & white or colored figures are allowed.

Hard copy illustrations should, preferably, be scanned and included in the electronic version of the submission in an appropriate format 


Equations should be numbered serially within parentheses as shown in Equation (1). Equation should be prepared using MS Equation Editor (not in image format). The equation number is to be placed at the extreme right side.                        

Units, Abbreviations and Symbols

Metric units are preferred. Define abbreviations and symbols at the first time as they are introduced in the text.


Conclusions should answer the objectives of research. Tells how your work advances the field from the present state of knowledge. Without clear Conclusions, reviewers and readers will find it difficult to judge the work, and whether or not it merits publication in the journal. Do not repeat the Abstract, or just list experimental results. Provide a clear scientific justification for your work, and indicate possible applications and extensions. You should also suggest future works and/or policy implication.

Author Contributions: For research articles with several authors, a short paragraph specifying their individual contributions could be provided. The following statements should be used “X.X. and Y.Y. conceived and designed the experiments; X.X. performed the experiments; X.X. and Y.Y. analyzed the data; W.W. contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools; Y.Y. wrote the paper.” Authorship must be limited to those who have contributed substantially to the work reported.

Conflicts of Interest: Declare conflicts of interest or state “The authors declare no conflict of interest." Authors must identify and declare any personal circumstances or interest that may be perceived as inappropriately influencing the representation or interpretation of reported research results. Any role of the funding sponsors in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results must be declared in this section. If there is no role, please state “The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results”.



Recognize those who helped in the research, especially funding supporter of your research. Include individuals who have assisted you in your study: Advisors, Financial supporters, or may other supporter i.e. Proofreaders, Typists, and Suppliers who may have given materials. 


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

Appendix A

The appendix is an optional section that can contain details and data supplemental to the main text. For example, explanations of experimental details that would disrupt the flow of the main text, but nonetheless remain crucial to understanding and reproducing the research shown; figures of replicates for experiments of which representative data is shown in the main text can be added here if brief, or as Supplementary data. Mathematical proofs of results not central to the paper can be added as an appendix.

Appendix B

All appendix sections must be cited in the main text. In the appendixes, Figures, Tables, etc. should be labeled starting with ‘A’, e.g., Figure A1, Figure A2, etc


There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission, but we encouraging to use APA citation output. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. This weblink, that explaining APA citation could be useful. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Editor at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Please use Reference Manager Applications like EndNote, Mendeley, Zotero, etc. Use other published articles in the same journal as models. All publications cited in the text should be included as a list of references. References are listed alphabetically. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Please see the example below

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year of Publication). Title of article in sentence case: First word of subtitle also capitalized. Title of Journal in mixed case and italicsvolume number in italics(issue number in brackets), first page-last page. doi:  

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (in press). Title of article in sentence case: First word of subtitle also capitalized. Title of Journal in mixed case and italics. doi: 

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Date of publication). Title of article in sentence case: Capitalize first word of subtitle. Title of Journal in Mixed Case and Italics, volume number in italics(issue number in brackets), first page-last page. Retrieved from

For print book:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of chapter in sentence case. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book in sentence case and italics (first page-last page of chapter). City, State or Country: Publishing Company.

Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of book in sentence case and italics: Capitalize first word of subtitle (A. Editor & B. Editor, Eds.). Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. & Author, B., & Author, C. (Date of publication). Title of work in sentence case and italics: Capitalize first word of subtitlte (Number of edition, if available). City, State or Country: Publishing Company.

For e-book:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter in sentence case. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book in sentence case and italics (first page-last page of chapter). Retrieved from Name database.

For an organizational or government report or document with no author(s): 

Name of Organization or Government Agency. (Year of publication). Title of document in sentence case and italics: Capitalize first word of subtitle. Retrieved from Name database.

Name of Organization or Government Agency. (Year of publication). Title of document in sentence case and italics: Capitalize first word of subtitle. Retrieved from