Dengue Incidence in Relation to Environmental Factors in Sampang Regency: Analysis of Five Years Data

Julius Albert Sugianto, Cindy Cecilia, Sulistiawati


In Indonesia and especially East Java, incidence of Dengue Fever (DF) and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) has been increasing despite various policies to mitigate or curb the burden of DF and DHF. Studies regarding when the dengue incidence rate would increase are essential for more effective policies. This study sought to analyze the relationship of monthly dengue incidence rate with various environmental factors (temperature, humidity, and rainfall) within a 5-year period at Sampang Regency, East Java, Indonesia. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted. Dengue incidence rate within a 5-year period from 21 primary healthcare centers and one hospital as well as data on various environmental factors were collected. The data were tabulated and analyzed using the Pearson Correlation Test. Cumulatively, there are 2.298 DF/DHF cases recorded between 2012–2016. Incidence tend to increase every year. Monthly dengue incidence rate increases after approximately three months of humidity and rainfall increase. Dengue incidence has a significant correlation with rainfall (p=0.008; p<0.05) and humidity (p=0.003; p<0.05) but insignificant correlation with minimum (p=0.653; p>0.05), maximum (p=0.999; p>0.05), and average temperature (p=0.823; p>0.05). We hope this result could help policymakers adjust their policies to anticipate dengue incidence after the rise of rainfall and humidity.


1. Guo C, Zhou Z, Wen Z, et al. Global Epidemiology of Dengue Outbreaks in 1990–2015: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2017;7(317): 1–11.

2. Sabir MJ, Al-Saud NBS, Hassan SM. Dengue and Human Health: A Global Scenario of Its Occurrence, Diagnosis and Therapeutics. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2021. Available from:

3. Cucunawangsih, Lugito NPH. Trends of Dengue Disease Epidemiology. Virology: Research and Treatment. 2017; 8: 1–6.

4. BPS. Jumlah Kasus Penyakit Menurut Kabupaten/Kota dan Jenis Penyakit di Provinsi Jawa Timur, 2019. [Report]. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik; 2020. Available from:

5. BPS. Jumlah Kasus Penyakit Menurut Kabupaten/Kota dan Jenis Penyakit di Provinsi Jawa Timur, 2017. [Report]. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik; 2018. Available from:

6. Dinkes Kabupaten Sampang. Laporan Bulanan Program P2M Demam Berdarah Dengue. Sampang: Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Sampang; 2016.

7. Choi Y, Tang CS, McIver L, et al. Effects of Weather Factors on Dengue Fever Incidence and Implications for Interventions in Cambodia. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(241):1-7.

8. Hii YL, Zaki RA, Aghamohammadi N, et al. Research on Climate and Dengue in Malaysia: A Systematic Review. Current Environmental Health Reports. 2016;3:81–90.

9. Langkulsen U, Promsakha na Sakolnakhon K, James N. Climate and Dengue in Central Region of Thailand. Environmental Epidemiology. 2019;3:221–222.

10. Toai N, Chinh D, Vittor A, et al. Associations between Dengue Hospitalizations and Climate in Can Tho, Vietnam, 2001-2011. Environment Asia. 2016;9(2):55–63.

11. Jing QL, Cheng Q, Marshall JM, et al. Imported Cases and Minimum Temperature Drive Dengue Transmission in Guangzhou, China: Evidence from ARIMAX Model. Epidemiology & Infection. 2018;146(10):1226–1235.

12. Peña-García VH, Triana-Chávez O, Arboleda-Sánchez S. Estimating Effects of Temperature on Dengue Transmission in Colombian Cities. Annals of Global Health. 2017;83(3-4): 509-518.

13. Kakarla SG, Caminade C, Mutheneni SR, et al. Lag Effect of Climatic Variables on Dengue Burden in India. Epidemiology & Infection. 2019;147:1–10.

14. Tian H, Huang S, Zhou S, et al. Surface Water Areas Significantly Impacted 2014 Dengue Outbreaks in Guangzhou, China. Environmental Research. 2016;150:299–305.

15. Xu L, Stige LC, Chan K-S, et al. Climate Variation Drives Dengue Dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2017;114(1):113–118.

16. Mordecai EA, Cohen JM, Evans M V., et al. Detecting the Impact of Temperature on Transmission of Zika, Dengue, and Chikungunya Using Mechanistic Models. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2017;11(4):e0005568.

17. Wu X, Lang L, Ma W, et al. Non-Linear Effects of Mean Temperature and Relative Humidity on Dengue Incidence in Guangzhou, China. Science of the Total Environment. 2018; 628-629:766–771.

18. Xu Z, Bambrick H, Yakob L, et al. High Relative Humidity Might Trigger the Occurrence of the Second Seasonal Peak Of Dengue In The Philippines. Science of the Total Environment. 2020;708.

19. Prabodanie RAR, Schreider S, Cazelles B, et al. Coherence of Dengue Incidence and Climate in the Wet and Dry Zones of Sri Lanka. Science of the Total Environment. 2020;724:1–10.

20. Sumi A, Telan EFO, Chagan-Yasutan H, et al.Effect of Temperature, Relative Humidity and Rainfall on Dengue Fever and Leptospirosis Infections in Manila, the Philippines. Epidemiology & Infection. 2017;145(1):78–86.

21. Xiang J, Hansen A, Liu Q, et al. Association Between Dengue Fever Incidence and Meteorological Factors in Guangzhou, China, 2005–2014. Environmental Research. 2017;153:17–26.

22. Guzman MG, Gubler DJ, Izquierdo A, et al. Dengue Infection. Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 2016;2(16055):1–25.


Julius Albert Sugianto (Primary Contact)
Cindy Cecilia
Author Biography

Julius Albert Sugianto, RSUD Ngimbang

General Practitioner, RSUD Ngimbang
Sugianto, J. A., Cecilia, C. ., & Sulistiawati. (2021). Dengue Incidence in Relation to Environmental Factors in Sampang Regency: Analysis of Five Years Data. Media Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia, 17(1), 17-23.

Article Details