Status, Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Penggunaan Kontrasepsi: Metode Khusus Perempuan Versus Metode Pasangan

Elfrida Zoraya, I. G. A. A Karishma Maharani Raijaya


Women’s autonomy is considered important in reproductive health care and treatment options on seeking behavior. The improvement in various dimensions of women’s status and empowerment is expected to increase their role in decision making concerning fertility-related issues. This paper aims to analyze the association between women’s status and empowerment and contraceptive use - and of how these associations are mediated by socio-economic and demographic statuses. This study use cross sectional data from the 2017 Indonesia DHS. This study analyzed on 19,159 married women who currently either using any form of contraceptive using logit regression. Contraceptive use was categorized as either women-only or couple methods on the basis of whether a method requires the awareness of, or some support and cooperation from the husband. The result shows that women’s status had strongly positive associations with couple methods to female-only methods. Yet some empowerment dimension was less important in determining contraceptive use. Effort needs to be made on promoting gender roles and to educate women with particular focus on highly effective contraceptive methods.


1. Kemenkes RI. Profil Kesehatan Indonesia 2016. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2017.

2. WHO. World Health Statistics 2016 Monitoring Health for the SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals. Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2016.

3. Bongaarts J, Sinding SW. A Response to Critics of Family Planning Programs. International Perpectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. 2009;35(1):39–44.

4. United Nations. Report of the International Conference on Population and Development. Ageing International; 1994.

5. Kiani Z, Simbar M, Dolatian M, Zayeri F. Women’s Empowerment in Reproductive Decision-Making Needs Attention among Iranian Women. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2018;47(3):464–465.

6. Shimamoto K, Gipson JD. The Relationship of Women’s Status and Empowerment with Skilled Birth Attendant use in Senegal and Tanzania. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015;15(1):1–11.

7. Kabeer N. Discussing Women’s Empowerment-Theory and Practice. Sida Studi. Sisask A, Editor. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency; 2001.

8. Hindin MJ. The Influence of Women’s Early Childbearing on Subsequent Empowerment in sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-National Meta Analysis. International Center for Research on Women Fertility & Empowerment Working Paper Series. 2012;(March):1-31.

9. Solanke BL. Marriage Age, Fertility Behavior, and Women’s Empowerment in Nigeria. SAGE Open. 2015;5(4):1-9.

10. Hausmann R, Tyson L, Schwab K, Samans R, Zahidi S. The Global Gender Gap Report 2017. Switzerland; 2017.

11. Yeni Y, Mutahar R, Etrawati F, Utama F. Paritas dan Peran Serta Suami dalam Pengambilan Keputusan Terhadap Penggunaan Metode Kontrasepsi. Media Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia. 2017;13(4):362-368.

12. BPS; BKKBN; Kemenkes; USAID. Survei Demografi Kesehatan Indonesia. Badan Kependudukan dan Keluarga Berencana Nasional; 2017.

13. Sutinah S. Partisipasi Laki-Laki dalam Program Keluarga Berencana di Era Masyarakat Postmodern. Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik. 2017;30(3):290-299.

14. Phan L. Measuring Women’s Empowerment at Household Level Using DHS Data of Four Southeast Asian Countries. Social Indicators Research. 2016;126(1):359–378.

15. Brice NNG. Female Education and Contraception Choice: Evidence from Cameroon. Journal of Economics and Development Studies. 2018;6(4):143–153.

16. Hameed W, Azmat SK, Ali M, Sheikh MI, Abbas G, Temmerman M, et al. Women’s Empowerment and Contraceptive Use: The Role of Independent Versus Couples’ Decision-Making, From a Lower Middle Income Country Perspective. PLoS One. 2014;9(8).

17. Do M, Kurimoto N. Women’s Empowerment and Choice of Contraceptive Methods in Selected African Countries. International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health. 2012;38(1):23–33.

18. Nankinga O, Misinde C, Kwagala B. Gender Relations, Sexual Behaviour, and Risk of Contracting Sexually Transmitted Infections among Women in Union in Uganda. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):1–11.

19. De Vargas C, Ewerling F, Hellwig F, De Barros AJD. Contraception in Adolescence: The Influence of Parity and Marital Status on Contraceptive use in 73 Low-and Middle-Income Countries. Reproductive Health. 2019;16(21):1–12.

20. McClendon KA, McDougal L, Ayyaluru S, Belayneh Y, Sinha A, Silverman JG, et al. Intersections of Girl Child Marriage and Family Planning Beliefs and Use: Qualitative Findings from Ethiopia and India. Culture, Health and Sexuality. 2018;20(7):799–814.

21. Kabeer N. Women, Wages and Intra-Household Power Relations in Urban Bangladesh. Development and Change. 1997;28(2):261–302.

22. Misour R. Male Contraceptive Behavior in Rajshahi District of Bangladesh. International Medical Journal. 2008;7(2):15–20.

23. Ibisomi L. Is Age Difference Between Partners Associated with Contraceptive use among Married Couples in Nigeria?. International Perspectives on Sexual Reproductive Health. 2014;40(1):39–45.


Elfrida Zoraya (Primary Contact)
I. G. A. A Karishma Maharani Raijaya
Author Biography

Elfrida Zoraya, University of Indonesia

Program in Population and Labor Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business
Zoraya, E., & Karishma Maharani Raijaya, I. G. A. A. (2020). Status, Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Penggunaan Kontrasepsi: Metode Khusus Perempuan Versus Metode Pasangan. Media Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia, 16(1), 48-61. Retrieved from

Article Details