The role of tropical abandoned land relative to ecological and economic aspects

Karmini Karmini, Karyati Karyati, Kusno Yuli Widiati


The floristic structure and composition of abandoned lands in the tropic have been observed to be changing dynamically during the succession process. This is mostly because they are not utilized maximally, therefore, there is a need to assess the economic and ecological impacts of this land abandonment in tropical areas. This study was conducted to determine the ecological aspects of standstructure, floristic composition, and species diversity and analyze the economic aspects of standing trees in tropical abandoned land. The vegetation containing woody trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH) of > 5 cm were surveyed at six subplots sized 20 m × 20 m. The economic parameters were evaluated using data of log price, logging cost, profit margin, and stumpage value of standing trees in the study plot and a total of 126 trees including 26 species of 25 genera of 18 families were recorded. The most common species found were Macaranga tanarius with 50.60%, Bridelia glauca with 49.13%, and Pterospermum javanicum with 29.05% based on Importance Value Index (IVi). Moreover, the diversity, dominance, evenness, and richness indices were 1.23, 0.09, 0.87, and 5.17 respectively while the total log price at the abandoned land was 1,462.02 USD m-3 with an average value of 56.23USD m-3. The total and mean values of logging costs were 1,212.24USD ha-1 and 46.62USD ha-1, respectively while the total profit margin of log selling was USD337.39m-3 at maximum with an average of 12.98 USD m-3. Furthermore, the average stumpage value was 83.05 USD ha-1 while the total was calculated to be 2,159.36 USD ha-1.These findings showed the utilization of abandoned lands with respect to ecology and economic aspects has the ability to increase community welfare and support the implementation of developmental programs in the country.


Abandoned land; diversity; economic; floristic structure; stumpage value

Full Text:



Abebrese, M.O. (2002). Tropical secondary forest management in Africa. In Workshop on Tropical Secondary Forest Management in Africa: Reality and Perspectives, December 9-13, 2002 (pp. 1-7). Nairobi, Kenya.

Álvarez-Yépiz, J.C, Martínez-Yrízar, A., Búrquez, A., & Lindquist, C. (2008). Variation in vegetation structure and soil properties related to land use history of old-growth and secondary tropical dry forests in Northwestern Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management. 256, 355-366. doi:

Brower, J.E., Zar, J.H., & Von Ende, C.N. (1990). Field and laboratory ethods for general ecology, 3rd Ed. USA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers.

Brown, S. & Lugo, A.E. (1990). Tropical secondary forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 6, 1-32. doi:

Chokkalingam, U., Smith, J., & De Jong, W., & Sabogal, C. (2001). A conceptual framework for the assessment of tropical secondary forest dynamics and sustainable development potential in Asia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 13(4), 577-600.

Danquah, J.A., Appiah, M., & Ari, P. (2011). Comparison of post-fire planted and natural dry semi-deciduous forest communities in Ghana. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 6(23): 5266-5277. doi: 10.5897/AJAR11.820.

De Jong, W., Chokkalingam, U., & Smith, J. (2001). Tropical secondary forests in Asia: Introduction and synthesis. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 13(4), 563-576.

Fachrul, M.F. (2007). Bioecology sampling method. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara. [Indonesian]

FAO. (1996). Forest resouces assessment 1990. Survey of Tropical Forest Cover and Study of Change Processes. Italy: FAO Forestry Paper 130.

Feldpausch, T.R., Prates-Clark, C.C., Fernandes, E.C.M., & Riha, S.J. (2007). Secondary forest growth deviation from chronosequence predictions in Central Amazonia. Global Change Biology. 13, 967-979. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01344.x

Forestry Department of Pinansular Malaysia (FDPM). (1997). Manual kerja luar sistem pengurusan memilih. Kuala Lumpur: FDPM. [Malay]

Germain, R., Regula, J., Bick, S., & Zhang, L. (2019). Factors impacting logging costs: A case study in the Northeast, US. The Forestry Chronicle. 95(1), 16-23. doi:

Hanum, F.I., Pius, P., & Noor, A.G.A. (2001). Economic valuation of tree species diverity at Ayer Hitam Forest, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 22(2), 167-170.

Hikmat, A. (2005). Species composition, biomass and economic valuation of three virgin jungle reserves in Peninsular Malaysia. PhD Thesis. Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaaan Malaysia.

Husch, B., Miller, C.I., & Beers, T.W. 1982. Forest mensuration. New York: John Wiley and Sons Publishing.

Johnson, E.A. & Miyanishi, K. (2007). Disturbance and succession. In: Johnson, E.A., & Miyanishi, K. (Eds.), Plant Disturbance Ecology: the Process and the Response (pp. 1-14). USA: Elsevier.

Kartawinata, K., Abdulhadi, R., & Partomihardjo, T. (1981). Composition and structure of a lowland dipterocarp forest at Wanariset, East Kalimantan. The Malaysian Forester. 44(2 &3): 397-406.

Karyati, Ipor, I.B., Jusoh, I., Wasli, M.E., & Seman, I.A. (2013). Composition and diversity of plant seedlings and saplings at early secondary succession of fallow lands in Sabal, Sarawak. Acta Biologica Malaysiana. 2(3), 85-94. doi:

Karyati, Ipor, I.B., Jusoh, I., & Wasli, M.E. (2018). Tree stand floristic dynamics in secondary forests of different ages in Sarawak, Malaysia. Biodiversitas. 19(3), 687-693. doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d190302

Keddy, P.A. 2007. Plants and vegetation: origins, processes, consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Krebs, C.J. (2001). Ecology, 5th Ed. USA: Addison Wesley Longman Inc.

Lanly, J.P. (1982). Tropical forest resources. FAO Forestry Paper 30. Italy: FAO.

Lawrence, D. (2004). Erosion of tree diversity during 200 years of shifting cultivation in Bornean Rain Forest. Ecological Applications. 14(6), 1855-1869. doi:

Misra, K.C. (1992). Manual of plant ecology. New Delhi: Raju Primlani.

Mittelman, A. (2001). Secondary forests in the Lower Mekong Subregion: An overview of their extent, roles and importance. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 13(4), 671-690.

Nizam, M.S., Norziana, J., Sahibin, A.R., & Latiff, A. (2006). Edaphic relationships among tree species in the National Park at Merapoh, Pahang, Malaysia. Jurnal Biosains. 17(2): 37-53.

Noor, A.A.G. & Vincent, J.R., & Yusuf, H. (1992). Comparative economic analysis of forest revenue system in Peninsular Malaysia. Osborn Center Forestry Policy Grants Program Final Report, 7-12.

Noor, A.A.G. & Shahwahid, M.H.O. (1999). Price-based valuation method: stumpage appraisal of timber resources peat swamp forest. Manual on economic valuation of environmental goods and services of peat swamp forests. Kuala Lumpur: Forest Department Peninsular Malaysia.

Noor, A.A.G., Norini, H., Khamurudin, M.N., Ainuddin, A., & Ismariah, A. (2007a). Economic valuation of timber resources in Ayer Hitam Forest Reserve, Puchong, Selangor. Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 30(2), 83-96.

Noor, A.A.G., Norini, H., Khamurudin, M.N., Ainuddin, A., & Ismariah, A. (2007b). Valuing the rain forest: The economic values of selected forest goods and services in Ayer Hitam Forest Reserve, Puchong, Selangor. Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 30(2), 141-152.

Odum, P.E. (2005). Fundamentals of ecology, 5th Ed. Belmont CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.

Ohtsuka, T. (1999). Early stages of secondary succession on abandoned cropland in north-east Borneo island. Ecological Research. 14, 281-290. doi:

Sapkota, I.P., Tigabu, M., & Odén, P.C. (2010). Changes in tree species diversity and dominance across a disturbance gradient in Nepalese Sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.) forests. Journal of Forestry Research. 21(1), 25-32. doi:

Statistics Kutai Kartanegara Regency. (2019). Kutai Kartanegara Regency in figures 2019. Retrieved from

Tansley, A.G. (1993). An introduction to plant ecology. New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House.

Van Breugel, M., Martinez-Ramos, M., & Bongers, F. (2006). Community dynamics during early secondary succession in Mexican tropical rain forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology. 22, 663-674. doi: 10.1017/S0266467406003452



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Forest and Society is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

View My Stats

Forest and Society has been indexed/registered/mentioned in : 


View full indexing services