The Influence of Oral Hygiene Education on The Oral Health Status of Patients Suffering from HIV/AIDS



Education, Nurses' Oral Hygiene, Patients with AIDS


Introduction: Poor oral hygiene and dental care can affect oral intake which results in decreased endurance and increases the risk of opportunistic or systemic infections. Method: The research was carried out the RSUD dr. M. Haulussy Ambon, Maluku, Indonesia, using a quasi-experimental method, involving 30 nurses and 20 patients. The level of knowledge and skills is evaluated before and after oral hygiene education for nurses. Patients were measured with a Beck Oral Assessment Scale (BOAS) score, and C. albicans yeast culture before and after the intervention was given in the form of oral hygiene using a soft toothbrush and dental floss for one week. Result: The influence of oral hygiene education on nurses knowledge with median value of pre-education 36.00 and post-education 91.00 and nurse skills have median value of pre-education 67.00 and post-education 100.00 with a significant value of p = 0.001 <0.05. There is an increase in knowledge and skills after educational activities. Before oral hygiene treatment was applied with a review of the BOAS score it had a median value of 11.00 after the intervention became 6.00 a significant value of p= 0.001<0.05, which showed a decrease in scores after oral hygiene treatment. Examination of C. albicans fungus with a median value of 79.00 pre-intervention and 31.00 at post-intervention, a significant value of p= 0.001, showed a decrease in the number of post-intervention fungi. Conclusion: Nurses should conducted Oral hygiene regularly to improve oral health status of AIDs patiens.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Yohanis Lefta, Politeknik Kesehatan Kemenkes Maluku Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar

Staf Poltekkes Kemenkes MalukuAmbon - Indonesia Mahasiswa Program Studi Magister Ilmu Keperawatan - Fakultas Keperawatan.Universitas HasanuddinMakassar - Indonesia

Abduljabbar, T., Hussain, M., Adnan, T., Vohra, F., & Javed, F. (2017). Comparison of oral Candida species prevalence and carriage among gutka-chewers and betel-quid chewers, 350–354. Retrieved from

Ames N.J, Sulima P, Yates J,M, McCullagh L,Gollins S.L, Soeken K, Wallen G.R. 2011. Effects of Systematic Oral Care in Critically Ill Patients: A Multicenter Study. American Journal Critical Care : 20(5): e103–e114.

Delise, P., Polyzois, G., Machado, A. L., Giampaolo, E. T., Sanitá, P. V., & Vergani, C. E. (2012). Effectiveness of Mechanical Brushing with Different Denture Cleansing Agents in Reducing In Vitro Candida albicans Biofilm Viability, 23, 547–554.

Drapal, C. S. (2015). Oral Care Practice Guidelines for the Care- Dependent Hospitalized Adult Outside of the Intensive Care Unit Setting.

Doengoes, M.E, Moorhouse, M. F., & Murr, A. C. (2015). Nursing Care Plans (9th ed., Vol. 1542). Philadelphia.

Fernanda, C., Vidal, D. L., Karla, A., Vidal, D. L., Gildo, J., Monteiro, D. M., … Montarroyos, U. (2017). Impact of oral hygiene involving toothbrushing versus chlorhexidine in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia : a randomized study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 1–9.

Fjeld KG, Eide H, Mowe M, Hove LH, Willumsen T. Dental hygiene registration: development, and reliability and validity testing of an assessment scale designed for nurses in institutions. J Clin Nurs. 2017;26(13–14):1845-53.

Fox, J. E., Tobias, C. R., Bachman, S. S., Reznik, D. A., Rajabun, S., & Verdecias, N. (2012). Increasing Access to Oral Health Care for People Living with HIV / AIDS in the U . S .: Baseline Evaluation Results of the Innovations in Oral Health Care Initiative, 127, 5–16.

Freires, I. de A., Murata, R. M., Furletti, V. F., Sartoratto, A., Alencar, S. M. de, Figueira, G. M., … Rosalen, P. L. (2014). Coriandrum sativum L . (Coriander) Essential Oil: Antifungal Activity and Mode of Action on Candida spp., and Molecular Targets Affected in Human Whole-Genome Expression, 9(6).

Gibney, J., Wright, C., Sharma, A., & Naganathan, V. (2015). Nurse’s Knowledge, Attitudes , and Current Practice of Daily Oral Hygiene Care to Patients on Acute Aged Care Wards in Two Australian Hospitals, 5, 285–293.

Groenkjaer, L. L. (2015). Oral Care in Hepatology Nursing, 22–30.

Khan, S. A., Moorthy, J., Omar, H., & Hasan, S. S. (2012). People living with HIV / AIDS ( PLWHA ) and HIV / AIDS associated oral lesions ; a study in Malaysia. BMC Public Health, 12(1), 1.

Krishnan, P. A. (2012). Fungal Infections of the Oral Mucosa. Kesehatan, 23.

Kuteyi, T., & Okwundu, C. (2012). Topical treatments for HIV-related oral ulcers, (1).

Malik, N. A. (2017). Oral Hygiene Practices and Knowledge Among Stroke-Care Nurses: A Multi-Center Cross- Sectional Study.

Meless, D., Boubacar, B., & Faye, M. (2015). Oral lesions among HIV-infected children on antiretroviral treatment in West Africa, 19(3), 246–255.

Mwangosi, I. E. A. T., & Majenge, J. M. (2011). Prevalence and awareness of oral manifestations among people living with HIV / AIDS attending counselling and treatment centres in Iringa Municipality; Tanzania, 13(3), 1–7.

Nursalam, Ninuk, D. K., Misutarno, & Kurniasari, F. S. (2018). Asuhan Keperawatan Pada Pasien Terinfeski HIV/AIDS. (P. P. Lestari & T. U. Utami, Eds.) (Two). Jakarta: Salemba Medika.

Oyetola, E. O., Owotade, F. J., Agbelusi, G. A., Fatusi, O. A., & Sanusi, A. A. (2015). Oral findings in chronic kidney disease: implications for management in developing countries, 1–8.

Patussi, C., Sassi, L. M., Munhoz, E. C., Stramandinoli, R. T., & Schussel, J. L. (2014). Clinical assessment of oral mucositis and candidiasis compare to chemotherapic nadir in transplanted patients, 28(1), 1–7.

Peeran, S. W., Altaher, O. B., Peeran, S. A., Alsaid, F. M., Mugrabi, M. H., & Ahmed, A. M. (2014). Oral health in Libya : addressing the future challenges, 1, 1–7.

Pinelli, L. A. P., Montandon, A. A. B., Corbi, S. C. T., Moraes, T. A., & Fais, L. M. G. (2013). Ricinus Communis Treatment of Denture Stomatitis in Institutionalised Elderly, (10).

Potter, P. A., Perry, A. G., Stockert, P. A., & Hall, A. M. (2013). FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING (EIGHTH EDI). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Inc.

Rajabiun, S., Fox, J. E., McCluskey, A., E., G., Verdecias, N., Jeanty, Y., … Mofidi, M. (2012). Patient Perspectives on Improving Oral Health-Care Practices Among People Living with HIV / AIDS, 127, 73–81.

Salamone, K., Yacoub, E., Mahoney, A., & Edward, K. (2013). Oral Care of Hospitalised Older Patients in the Acute Medical Setting, 2013, 4–7.

Sato, T., Kishi, M., Suda, M., Sakata, K., Shimoda, H., Miura, H., & Ogawa, A. (2017). Prevalence of Candida albicans and non- albicans on the tongue dorsa of elderly people living in a post-disaster area : a cross-sectional survey, 1–10.

Seleem, D., Benso, B., Noguti, J., Pardi, V., & Murata, R. M. (2016). In Vitro and In Vivo Antifungal Activity of Lichochalcone-A against Candida albicans Biofilms, 1–17.

Souza, R. F. De, Khiyani, M. F., Chaves, C. A. L., Feine, J., Barbeau, J., Fuentes, R., … Emami, E. (2017). Improving practice guidelines for the treatment of denture-related erythematous stomatitis: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial, 1–8.

Takeuchi, S., Motohashi, J., Kimori, H., Nakagawa, Y., & Tsurumoto, A. (2016). Effects of oral moisturising gel containing egg yolk antibodies against Candida albicans in older people, 128–134.

Valentini-mioso, F., Maske, T. T., Cenci, M. S., Boscato, N., & Pereira-cenci, T. (2013). Chemical hygiene protocols for complete dentures: A crossover randomized clinical trial. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 1–7.

Yang, Y., Zhang, F., Lyu, X., Yan, Z., Hua, H., & Peng, X. (2016). Prevention Of Oral Candidiasis After Free Flap Surgery: Role Of 3% Sodium Bicarbonate Saline Saline In Oral Care. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.



How to Cite

Lefta, Y., Arafat, R., & Syahrul, S. (2021). The Influence of Oral Hygiene Education on The Oral Health Status of Patients Suffering from HIV/AIDS. Indonesian Contemporary Nursing Journal (ICON Journal), 5(2), 68-78.




Most read articles by the same author(s)