The Shift of Honorifics due to The Promotion As A Government Official: Comparative Study


  • Sukmawaty Sukmawaty Hasanuddin University
  • Citra Andini Hasanuddin University
  • Fakhriawan Fathu Rahman Hasanuddin University



Honorifics, Social Deixis, Comparative Study, Government, Social Status


The general public claims that there are socially agreed rules of honor and that the use of honorary titles is a matter of complying with those rules, and researchers often claim this too. This research aims to identify the kinds of the honorifics used by English and Buginese Bone language, and to analyze the use of the honorific in used English and Buginese Bone focused on the shift of honorifics due to the promotion as a government officer. This was comparative study between English and Buginese language in respect someone in order to highlight the social status and rank of job and to show respect and to dignify social status. This research used the descriptive qualitative method while the English data were obtained through the English movies that are Black Widow, and The Intern, as well as the news posted at BBC about people who receive awards in the form of titles while Buginese data were obtained through the participants recording and note-taking. The research result show that in English almost every year the country's leaders give royal titles to people who excel in their respective careers, and the title is recognized by the state, the title "sir" for men while "dame" if she is a woman and it put in front of their names, while Buginese Bone has hierarchical system was mention that different rank of job make different honorific and it used to respect and dignify someone’s status, this form used honorific lexemes such as tabe’, ndi’, iye’, puang, and petta cama’, beside in order to show respect in English utterances by immediately greeted by name, such as Paul, George, Clara and Jane because in English the name is more important than the title.


Download data is not yet available.


Andini, C. (2021). The Use of Honorifics in English and Buginese with special Reference to Bone Language: A Comparative Study. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, 6(7), 873-877.

Bachriani, B., Yassi, A. H., & Rahman, F. (2018). A Comparative Study of Euphemism in English and Buginese: Pragmatic Stylistics Contexts. ELS Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, 1(4), 429-440.

Black Widow, (2021). Marvel Studios' Black Widow. Retrieved September 2021 from:

Brown, R., & Gilman, A. (1960). The pronouns of power and solidarity. Style in language, 252-281.

Brown, P., Levinson, S. C., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage (Vol. 4). Cambridge university press.

Creswell, J. W., & Miller, D. L. (2000). Determining validity in qualitative inquiry. Theory into practice, 39(3), 124-130. Cornish, F. (2011). ‘Strict’anadeixis, discourse deixis and text structuring. Language Sciences, 33(5), 753-767.

Cruse, A. (2006). Glossary of semantics and pragmatics. Edinburgh University Press. Leech, G, (1993). Prinsip-Prinsip Pragmatik. Jakarta: Penerbit Universitas Indonesia

Levinson, S. C., Levinson, S. C., & Levinson, S. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge university press. Levinson, S. C. (2004). Deixis. In The handbook of pragmatics (pp. 97-121). Blackwell.

News Round (2019). What's the difference between OBE, MBE and CBE?. Retrived on August 2021,

Nurani, L. M. (2015). Changing language loyalty and identity: An ethnographic inquiry of societal transformation among the Javanese people in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Arizona State University.

Ögeyik, M. C. (2007). Deictic expressions and the types of deixis in Turkish narratives. The International Journal of Language Society and Culture, 22, 8-19.

Prihandoko, L. A., Tembang, Y., Marpaung, D. N., & Rahman, F. (2019, October). English language competence for tourism sector in supporting socio-economic development in Merauke: A Survey Study. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 343, No. 1, p. 012170). IOP Publishing.

Rahman, F., & Letlora, P. S. (2018). Cultural Preservation: Rediscovering the Endangered Oral Tradition of Maluku (A Case Study on Kapata of Central Maluku). Advances in language and literary studies, 9(2), 91-97.

Saleh, F., Rahman, F., & Hasyim, M. (2021). Metaphor in the Bugis Language Expression of the Sidenreng Dialectin South Sulawesi. International Journal of Arts and Social Science, 4(1), 312-318.

Sandel, T. L., Chao, W. Y., & Liang, C. H. (2006). Language shift and language accommodation across family generations in Taiwan. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 27(2), 126-147.

Sain, Y., Lukman, Darwis, M., & Rahman, F. (2020). Language Shift and the Linguistic Maintainance: A Study of Tolaki Language in Kendari City Southeast Sulawesi. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, 5(12), 661-670

Tahir, M., Rahman, F., Rahman, A., & Pattu, M. A. (2021). Kajian Verba Resiprokal Dalam Naskah Boegineesche Chrestomathie. FIB Press.

The Intern. (2015). The Intern. Retrieved on May 2015,

Williams, L., & van Compernolle, R. A. (2009). On versus tu and vous: Pronouns with indefinite reference in synchronous electronic French discourse. Language, 182w6os-libre.pdf?1466950113=&response-content- disposition=inline%3B+filename%3DOn_versus_tu_and_vous_Pronouns_with_inde.pdf&Expires=1650616808&Sign ature=Y8L6NC7wy01BfkxGUxvE1iQ9gouJQNJthjDC~Q~TiLqVcTgh~- qiLG~GBY3OPhWzLEm1l5UVCpjOn4f1KVo7a~I~Fo2SfFwhhKUzgOqG6MhljBah33j1oQDvoKp7wH8ADK~svNLKsL nswxCDcCLRBiJeE51yX594PFcIQYB3k8bP2ysHzVkYBLevklxLOS0wedn8wiCNRF4SQn01UzvJneNtVzzV3UzzAZ Y9QY7QvMQTeEQhm1vryvYcbXuvldzCuK2EWANcxJVxDoLOrVoHtxJp2NbUAvY36egEmlt7yyeWwQVgRPlfxoU26 g3QeAoQQjvhKzngQ6HHmcCEfFuFHw__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJLOHF5GGSLRBV4ZA

Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Yule, G., & Widdowson, H. G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford university press.

Nazir. 1988. Metode Penelitian. Jakarta: Ghalia Indonesia.

Nugroho, W. (2010, March 22). Kursus bahasa Inggris diminati [English courses are demanded]. Kompas. Retrieved from

Nunan, D. (2003). The impact of English as a global language on education policies and practices in the Asia-Pacific region. TESOL Quarterly,37(4), 589-613. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary-wiley-

Paparan wakil menteri pendidikan dan kebudayaan R.I bidang pendidikan [Explanation of vice minister of the minister of education and culture of the republic of Indonesia]. (2014). Konsep dan Implementasi Kurikulum 2013 [Concept and implementation of the 2013 Curriculum]. Jakarta: The Ministry of Education and Culture.

Peraturan pemerintah republik Indonesia nomor 32 tahun 2013 [Regulation of the minister of education and culture number

year 2013] (Permendikbud). Available from content/uploads/2016/08/PP0322013.pdf

Poedjosoedarmo, G. (2006). The effect of Bahasa Indonesia as a lingua franca on the Javanese system of speech levels and their functions. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, (177), 111-121. doi:

Priyono. (2004). Logical problems of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia. In Cahyono, B. Y., & Widiati, U (Eds.). The tapestry of English language teaching and learning in Indonesia (pp. 17-28). Malang: State University of Malang Press.

Rahman, A. Q. (2004). Applying cooperative learning to uphold language classroom dynamics. In Cahyono, B. Y., & Widiati, U (Eds.). The tapestry of English language teaching and learning in Indonesia (pp. 169-178). Malang: State University of Malang Press.

Regulation of the Minister of National Education 2006 (Permendiknas). Available from

Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching: A

Rusdi. (2004). Students’ preferred teacher behaviours and English teaching activities. In Cahyono, B. Y., & Widiati, U (Eds.). The tapestry of English language teaching and learning in Indonesia (pp. 179-194). Malang: State University of Malang Press.

Savignon, S. J., & Wang, C. (2003). Communicative language teaching in EFL contexts: Learner attitudes and perceptions.

IRAL, 41(3), 223-250.

Smith, Brian D. (1991). English in Indonesia. English Today: The International Review of the English Language,7(2 [26]), 39-43.

Stets, J., & Burke, P. (2000). Identity theory and social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 63(3), 224-237. doi: 10.2307/2695870

Sundari, Hanna. (2017). Classroom interaction in teaching English as foreign language at lower secondary schools in Indonesia. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 8(6), 147-154. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-

Tsui, A. B., & Tollefson, J. W. (2006). Language policy and the construction of national cultural identity. In Tsui, A. B., & Tollefson, J. W. (Eds.), Language policy, culture, and identity in Asian contexts (pp. 11-32). Retrieved from

Undang-undang republik Indonesia nomor 20 tahun 2003 tentang sistem pendidikan nasional [The law of the republic of Indonesia number 20 year 2003 on national education system]. Available from

Widiati, U., Rohmah, Z., & Furaidah. (2017). Bahasa Inggris [English language]. Jakarta: The Ministry of Education and Culture.

Wong, W.-Y., & Wong, N.-Y. (2016). Confucianism and contemporary education phenomena. In Indigenous Culture, Education and Globalization: Critical Perspectives from Asia (pp. 227-243). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Woodward, K. (1997). Identity and difference (Culture, media and identities). London: Sage in association with the Open University.

Yeung, S. M. Y. (2011). Motivation for English language learning: A study of Hong Kong vocational students (Order No. U594468). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1439331239). Retrieved from https://search-

Yu, Liming. (2001). Communicative language teaching in China: progress and resistance. TESOL Quarterly, 35(1), 194-

Retrieved from




How to Cite

Sukmawaty, S., Andini, C., & Fathu Rahman, F. (2022). The Shift of Honorifics due to The Promotion As A Government Official: Comparative Study. ELS Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, 5(1), 166-176.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>