The Negative Impacts of the Cultural Ban and Oppression of Human Rights on the Afghan’s Psychological Condition in Khaled Hosseini’s Novels The Kite Runner and A Thousand Splendid Suns


  • Ahmad Misuari Gibran Hasanuddin University
  • M. Amir P Hasanuddin University
  • Herawaty Abbas Hasanuddin University



Culture, Abuse, Oppression


These This article discusses two of Khaled Hosseini’s notable novels, namely The Kite Runner (2003) and A Thousand Splendid Suns (2007). These novels describes the story where Afghanistan is affected by the negative impacts of the long-running confilicts and the other social problems. The purpose of this article is to discuss the negative impacts of the cultural ban and the violation of human rights on the characters’ psychological condition. By applying the qualitative method and the psychoanalysis theory, this article would explain how the case of cultural ban and human rights violation affected the characters in the novels. The writer would also use several additional references to strengthen the evidences in this article. The findings of this article are related to the characters’ stresses in dealing with their respective problems in each novel. In The Kite Runner, the discussion focuses on the Hazara characters named Hassan and Sohrab, with the latter being the most-discussed one. Both are the victims of Taliban atrocities where Hassan was killed by the officials, and his son Sohrab was captured and forced to be a bacha bazi (dancing boy) by Assef, the antagonist of the novel , which reflected the negative impact of violations towards his psychological development. The next result is found in the second novel titled A Thousand Splendid Suns, which focuses on the story of Mariam. In the plot, Mariam is shown to be oppressed by both his temperamental husband Rasheed and the strict regulations of Taliban, which also at least prevented her to gain her rights and triggered her stress.


Download data is not yet available.


ABC News. (2012). Taliban Behead 17 for Singing and Dancing. Accessed on August 15th, 2021.

Arafah, B. (2019). The Idol: A Model for Incorporating Literature in Elt. KnE Social Sciences, 43-59.

Aras, G. (2015). Personality and individual differences: Literature in psychology-psychology in literature. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 185, 250-257.

Arniati, F., Darwis, M., Rahman, N., & Rahman, F. (2019). Mother Behavior to Their Daughters As Seen in''Pride and Prejudice" and" Little Women". ELS Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, 2(4), 620-625.

Donnelly, J. (2013). The Relative Universality of Human Rights. In Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice (pp. 93-105). Cornell University Press.

Eagleton, T. (1993). It Is Not Quite True That I Have A Body, And Not Quite True That I Am One Either. London Review of Books, 27(5), 7-8.

Fair Observer. (2014). The Politics of Literary Censorship in Afghanistan. Accessed on August 17th, 2021.

Fildzha, S. F. (2019). The Idiosyncratic Behaviors of Young People in Winton’s Cloudstreet. Makassar:Universitas Hasanuddin.

Freud, S. (1914). On narcissism: An introduction (Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Vol. 14). London, UK: Hogarth Press.

Freud, S. (1917). A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis. PDF Books World.

Freud, S. (1923). Das Ich und das Es [The ego and the id]. Vienna: Internationaler Psycho.

Hardiansyah, A. (2016). A Psychological Analysis on The Main Character in If I Stay Novel by Gale Forman. Bandung:UIN Sunan Gunung Djati.

Hasrat, M. H. (2019). Over A Century Of Persecution : Massive Human Rights Violation Against Hazaras in Afghanistan. Accessed on August 17th, 2021.

Hosseini. (2003). The Kite Runner. New York:Riverhead Books

Hosseini. (2007). A Thousand Splendid Suns. New York:Riverhead Books

Ilham. (2017). The Main Character’s Survival Instinct in Herbert George Well’s Novel The War of The Worlds. Makassar:Universitas Hasanuddin.

Jewkes, R., Corboz, J., & Gibbs, A. (2019). Violence against Afghan women by husbands, mothers-in-law and siblings-in-law/siblings: Risk markers and health consequences in an analysis of the baseline of a randomised controlled trial. PloS one, 14(2), e0211361.

Mokoginta, K., Arafah, B., Rahman, F., & Abbas, H. (2021). Indonesian Women as Reflected in an English Textbook Used in Indonesia.

Onuekwusi, J. (2013). A Nation and Her Stories: Milestones in the Growth of Nigerian Fiction and Their Implications for National Development. Imo State University Press.

P. Amir, M. (2015). Readers’ Interpretation and Recontextualization of Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. Journal of Literature. Languages and Linguistics.

Rahman, F. (Ed.). (2011). Pembangunan, Psikologi dan Masalah Sosial: Proceeding Seminar Internasional Serumpun Melayu 2011. Fakultas Ilmu Budaya, Universitas Hasanuddin.

Rahman, F. (2018). The Constraints of Foreign Learners in Reading English Literary Works: A Case Study at Hasanuddin University. Journal of Arts and Humanities, 7(2), 01-12.

Rahman, F., & Letlora, P. S. (2018). Cultural Preservation: Rediscovering the Endangered Oral Tradition of Maluku (A Case Study on Kapata of Central Maluku). Advances in language and literary studies, 9(2), 91-97.

Rahman, F., Akhmar, A. M., & Amir, M. (2019, May). The Practice of Local Wisdom of Kajang People to Save Forests and Biodiversity: A Cultural-Based Analysis. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 270, No. 1, p. 012038). IOP Publishing.

Fairuz, Rahman, F., & Amin, M. A. (2022). Authors’ Figurative Expressions From Two Novels: A Comparative Analysis Between RTJNA Rosso and RTJNA Blu. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 12(1), 150-157.

Sakti, A. E. F. (2020). Sense of Human Mental Disorder in Selected Short Stories. Makassar:Universitas Hasanuddin.

Salaam Times. (2021). Kite flying, dancing, music: Afghan pastimes again at risk from Taliban. Accessed on January 13th, 2022.

Schein, E. H. (1990). Organizational Culture (Vol. 45, No. 2, p. 109). American Psychological Association.

Sugiyartati, A., Arafah, B., Rahman, F., & Makka, M. (2020). Cultural Values in Oral Literature of Krinok: Antropolinguistic Study. Language Literacy: Journal of Linguistics, Literature, and Language Teaching, 4(2), 316-321.

Upeniece, V. (2016). War and Society. In SHS Web of Conferences (Vol. 30, p. 00009). EDP Sciences.

Wellek, R. & Warren, A. (1948). Theory of Literature. New York City:Harcourt, Brace, and Company.




How to Cite

Gibran, A. M., P, M. A. ., & Abbas, H. . (2022). The Negative Impacts of the Cultural Ban and Oppression of Human Rights on the Afghan’s Psychological Condition in Khaled Hosseini’s Novels The Kite Runner and A Thousand Splendid Suns. ELS Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, 5(1), 84-92.